A ‘jungle temple’ wall in Kapa foam

After so many years I’m finally coming close to the ‘look’ for this piece that I originally wanted. I made this wall piece mainly for fun around eight years ago, and I’d looked forward to painting it, but when I first attempted it I was disappointed. There wasn’t any of the thrill I’d expected, and it failed to look convincing.

My painting abilities, or more especially my understanding of how to achieve ‘natural’ pattern or weathering, have moved on a bit over the last years. When I originally tried to paint this I didn’t do anything that much different to now .. a darkish basecoat allowed to dry, then other colours dry-brushed (or dry-sponged ) on top with progressively lighter tones. What was fundamentally different though, and why I failed, was because I hadn’t yet acknowledged what I’m calling the ‘chocolate trap’ .. by which I mean, how too much of a good thing nullifies the effect! The first portion I tried was a delight , seen on its own, so I couldn’t stop myself doing the same on every bit! I couldn’t understand why, once I had lavished attention on every portion and took a step back, the expected excitement just wasn’t there.

I’ve had a few more years now in which to start seeing what natural patterning really looks like i.e. how often the pattern is challenged, or broken. Here I’m including as ’natural’ the effects of natural processes on the artificial. We expect a stone, a brick or a cobble to age and wear down in much the same way as its neighbour, when in reality there can be many unplanned differences. More importantly, as humans our minds are conditioned to separate the pattern from the chaos .. it’s something we’ve been particularly good at .. but it does mean we can become blind to disturbances in the pattern especially when it comes to aesthetics. So my being too regular was not entirely my fault! For some while now when I’ve been leading sessions on painting surfaces I’ve been encouraging people to deliberately interrupt, subvert or randomise small parts of their patterns. It’s really interesting how hard that’s been for people to bring themselves to do!

Another improvement to my painting method has been to at least try to record the colours used for future reference, even if I can’t account for how I’ve mixed them. Nowadays I can create a much more convincing ‘algal’ or mossy effect using an olive green as a basis. In fact I’ve found this to be the best basis colour for any type of greenery.

The only conscious reason I had for making this piece at the time was to illustrate the sort of things which could be done with these, above .. foam-impressing tools made from sliced portions of plastic cake decoration moulds. These flat, hard plastic moulds are not meant for pressing, rather they’re for filling, with mouldable icing or marzipan for example. It wouldn’t be possible to make much of an impression with them as they are, even in a soft foam such as Kapa-line. But cutting them into smaller sections and pressing them into narrow strips of foam just about worked because then the foam had somewhere to move.

Another method I used for the first time on this wall was making a specifically shaped strip of foam in order for it to be sliced into individual pieces, lined up at the top. Shaping the small pieces separately would have taken a huge amount of time, not to mention it being much harder to control the shape. See this method illustrated in more detail in my article Pressing decoration into foam, shaping and wire- brushing under Special surfacing methods in the Methods section.

I remember wondering at the time how many other interesting shapes could be produced in this way .. slicing a shaped length into small portions. It reminded me of one of the most remarkable form-making ideas I’d ever seen. When I was living in Germany I saw some examples of simple animal figures carved in wood. There was nothing distinctive about the figures themselves .. just the way they were done, each as a small portion sliced from a lathe-turned ‘wheel’ shape. What was also really surprising was that this ingenious method was confined to a speck on the map, around a small town in south Germany called Seiffen. For many hundreds of years Seiffen had been a focus for wooden toy manufacture, and particularly for Christmas ornaments. The technique of lathe-turning a circular ‘mother’ form, known in German as Reifendrehen (translates as ‘tyre turning’) is thought to have started in Seiffen at the beginning of the 19th century and is still practiced there.

What was at first unclear to me was how the wood turner could possibly know how far to cut, just looking at the outside surface of the ‘tyre’ form, especially with a design as elaborate as the one below?

But a clue is provided in the following photo from the workshop of the museum in Seiffen. A wedge has been cut from the circular block while still on the lathe, and presumably at the beginning of working on it. I’m assuming that the design is drawn or pasted onto one of these interior faces as a guide, but which of course can only be checked once the lathe stops.

‘So you think you’d like to be a model-maker?’ – Part 1

Above Work by Philippa Spring, as part of her degree show presented at ‘New Blades’, the model-makers annual recruitment fair, 2018, organized by 4D modelshop

I receive regular emails asking whether I have any advice on ‘becoming’ a model-maker. From people asking me, for example, whether I have any good first steps to suggest in terms of developing skills; what sort of work is usually available; what evidence should be shown, or what skills and qualities would I consider to be most important in terms of a person getting work, holding on to the work, and getting more; how the jobs are found, or where does one have to put oneself to be ‘found out about’ .. most often these kind of questions. So I thought it was about time that I tried to consolidate what advice I’m able to offer here. In many cases these questions come from people who perhaps didn’t consider it a career from the outset but have come back to it as a possibility, because their own involvement with it has always felt more rewarding than other things they’ve done. They’re wondering whether they might have what it takes to be a professional ‘maker’, they’re also wondering what the ‘profession’ looks like, and whether it has what it takes to support them.

Above One of the forestry dioramas at the Fisher Museum, Massachusetts, made in the 1930s by Theodore Pitman and Samuel Guernsey

So firstly, what does it take to get the most out of being a model-maker? What I mean here is, what does it take not only to do the job properly, not even to do it exceptionally well, but in order to keep enjoying it, to remain motivated, to keep being inspired, even in the fallow times when there may be little going on? I think this is a much more important question to answer than ‘How do I start?’. It’s a cliché in this business, yes, but the first is patience. Physical patience when manipulating materials is the one most often meant, including the calmness of the fingers, but there are other forms of patience. Model-making is on the whole a very time-consuming job, quite often loaded with very repetitive tasks, so it can help a lot if you’re the kind of person who can as it were ‘feed’ on those times for therapeutic purposes, someone who can even look forward to them. I know I do, and I welcome those stretches when I can ease the tension with something purely ‘mechanical’ without having to think that much. There are other instances of a different kind of patience needed when dealing with things other than materials .. for example while waiting for the right information, or dealing with the lack of it; while explaining how certain things take a long time and can’t be hurried if they are to be done properly, and showing the same patience with yourself if it’s just ‘one of those days’ when nothing is going right!

Next on the list is ingenuity, and there’s much more of that involved than people imagine I’m sure. I’d say it’s a ‘must’ that you’re the kind of person who really enjoys solving the trickiest of problems, who almost has to have them, otherwise every job will be a nightmare. It’s fair to assume that every single job you undertake will include a number of things, some of them like Alice’s ‘impossible things’, which you’ve never done or even thought of before. It’s also best to assume you’ll most often be alone in coming up with solutions, rather than imagining there’ll always be someone more knowledgeable around to ask. Even if you are working in some kind of team, to a certain extent each will have responsibility for tackling their own challenges. Ingenuity takes over where mere creativity is left whimpering.. there’s creativity in all of us, but ingenuity in not so many!

Above Exhibited model from Wes Anderson’s 2018 film ‘Isle of Dogs’, photo courtesy of Fox Searchlight Pictures

Knowledge of materials is something that won’t come ‘just like that’ but is built up over years, so it’s good to start actively collecting that knowledge from the outset. Being able to choose wisely from a number of material options for a task can make a world of difference, especially if there are time or money constraints. On the other hand, there are  some materials which can, once the time is taken to really get to know them, be used effectively for almost anything. For a person who values such knowledge and enjoys collecting it, an otherwise mundane trip to the supermarket, to Poundland or to a DIY warehouse can be like a day at the seaside.

The next is more difficult to mark with a tidy word or short encapsulating phrase but it involves the thrill of, a passion for, or at least an abiding interest in the art of simulation. One of the most important aspects of models, given their usually small size, is the fact that you’ve got to be very clever about which elements of the ‘visual truth’ you select to give a convincing result .. you can’t include them all. You have to capture the essence of ‘why and how’ something looks the way it does. As a model-maker you’re doing no less than a designer does .. artfully selecting. But artful simulation is not just a case of selecting the essential elements and reproducing them faithfully, more often it involves blending them in some way, and blurring or simplifying others to the point of mere suggestion. This works better for the model because the small-scale surface can’t hold too much detail, if it does it will look too ‘micro’, it could be disturbing. You can experience this if you’ve ever managed to make an incredibly fine and minute print copy .. it jars, the contrast is too harsh at small scale, it needs to be softened. It takes a lot to learn how to simulate artfully, some have ‘the eye’ while others could struggle .. and, yes, it is basically just about learning to ‘see’ things properly, being able to separate the backgrounds and nuances from the more obvious elements.

Above Scale model furniture by Ang Rui-Wei, part of her degree show work presented at ‘New Blades’, the model-makers annual recruitment fair, 2018, organized by 4D modelshop

A good byword for the next important thing to have is foresight. This is about anticipating, it’s about being good at visualising, and it’s about being able to plan properly. It can partly depend on what sort of model-making you’re doing but on the whole model-making doesn’t involve so much ‘free-style’ sculpting with a soft material .. if anything it’s much more about cutting out parts and assembling them. For that you need to have a clear plan, a clear ‘mind’s eye’ as to which element is made first, which can then be attached to it and where .. and so on. Foresight is important for the whole process, important all the time, but actually the best example of when this special ‘sight’ is especially needed comes from slightly outside the practical work .. i.e. if you have to predict beforehand how much it’s all going to cost!  Really, in order to do that with any worth to it you don’t just need a very organised mind, you need a highly imaginative one! You practically need to see yourself, doing the whole thing, a bit like a film in fast motion .. reminding yourself of what you know, and discovering what you don’t yet. Whenever I think of tasks such as this I’m reminded of the claims made by Nikola Tesla that he could construct machines in his mind’s-eye, then imagine himself switching them on .. to see if they worked!

Above 1:200 scale residential development model made by Scale Models Weston, Essex

Let’s say that you’ve done enough already so far to know that you really like making models; you’re proud of what you’ve done and you’ve received very flattering comments from those around you .. but you’re wondering how, or what, to develop to increase your chances of ‘earning’ from it, and you’re thinking about how you should present your work so it already looks more ‘professional’ and accessible to others ?

Building up your own ‘portfolio of evidence’ recording what you can do, what you can show people clearly, is the most important next step. The quality of your photos is fundamental here, along with very clear .. but short! .. title information, cluttered with very little other text. Here I should clarify that I’m talking about a sendable PDF (or if I’m wrong, whatever document type is guaranteed to be secure from alteration and effortlessly opened by all). Your CV should be a separate document, by the way, just consisting of ‘facts’ in text and I don’t think the two .. image portfolio and CV .. should ever be mixed. Don’t even think about writing a third, containing a prose ‘statement’ of what you’re about; who you admire, or what your favourite films are!

A PDF comes first, because these days it’s getting more and more unlikely that you’ll ever have to carry around an always-surprisingly-heavy, leather-imitation case filled with glossy pockets and arranged ‘photographs’. We can all be grateful for this and not least because compiling a digital document is so much easier and cheaper. I’d said that the photos must be good! .. but this doesn’t mean, especially nowadays, that only an experienced photographer could do them. Now smartphones can take sufficiently detailed, white-balanced and light-enhanced photos, and it’s these things that matter more than being able to play with special lighting or depth-of-field, unless your model has special requirements. What’s more important is that you take the time beforehand to rehearse viewpoints or compositions, really thinking about what the most informative shots might be. It helps a lot, and takes the pressure off your photo-shoot, if you have a photo-processing programme such as Photoshop or PaintShop Pro with which you can crop, ‘clean’ or brighten the image, or enliven the colours or contrasts if needed. Photos cannot capture the richness and spatial dynamism that our binocular vision gives us, so some ‘enhancements’ are needed to replace that. You need to be careful not to go overboard with any of these though because the effect needs to remain ‘natural’, especially the colour. If you do any of this, it’s best to set the display brightness of your screen to an average, like 50% perhaps, to better judge what others might see on their screens.

Above 1:43 scale model showing the construction of the Metropolitan Railway in the 1860’s, made in 1993 by Valhalla Models (London Transport Museum Collection)

In Part 2 I will be continuing with advice on what to develop if you’re a beginner, including some practical options if you’re stuck for ideas. Then I’ll be answering the question  Who needs models? .. not like it might sound, but rather ‘where models are wanted’, i.e. the disciplines in which models are commonly called for. This is followed by a selection of the most useful companies to look at who are working within those areas.

An architectural play-model: Part 2

 

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, 1:25 scale

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, 1:25 scale

This follows on from An architectural model: Part 1 posted on January 12 where I outlined the purposes of the model, expanded a little on the use of foamed PVC for the build, and detailed my methods for achieving a convincing polished concrete effect. In this second part I am looking at the rest i.e. the ‘generalized’ treatment of the brick walls; my methods for staining the woodwork features; and lucky solutions re the baseboard and veneer cladding.

 

Staining the woodwork

The natural wood chosen by the architect for this project is oak. In Part 1 I explained that I was hoping to emphasize the model’s own sculptural presence, and it occurred to me at one point that a way of doing that would be to give the model its own material integrity, a ‘truth to materials’ in other words .. i.e. by using real oak, even real glass, and even real brick! But in practical terms this hardly ever accords with the functional remit, important in this case, of keeping to scale! So I couldn’t explore that direction at this time. On the question of real wood, there are only a few woods suited to fine-scale model work and fewer available in thin strips or sheets. Oak, because of its hardness and strong patterning, definitely isn’t one of them. So I’ve taken obeche and stained it to represent oak. I could also have chosen limewood ( ‘basswood’ in model shops ), which is even more precise to cut, but I wanted to take advantage of the slight patterning which shows up when obeche is stained. The woodwork features in the architect’s design were mostly related to the window structures so the following group of photos serves to show both (the windows will be dealt with in Part 3).

David Neat model-maker, using stained obeche and PETG clear plastic

David Neat model-maker, using stained obeche and PETG clear plastic

David Neat model-maker, using stained obeche and PETG clear plastic

David Neat model-maker, using stained obeche and PETG clear plastic

David Neat model-maker, using foamed PVC, polyfilla stipple texture, stained obeche and PETG clear plastic

For this staining task I have used one of my favourite methods (suitable for both large or small work), which is to use a clear wax/oil based wood finish as a carrier, with a controlled amount of spirit-based stain mixed in ( it can’t be anything water-based ). I’ve found this much more successful than just using either a straight stain or a staining varnish partly because the wax/oil medium (along with anything added to it) penetrates the wood fibres more evenly, but also because it gives sufficient drying time to modify i.e. to rub away, or even out any excess. Spirit-based stains on their own can make woods like obeche or basswood too dark, unless they’re heavily thinned with white spirit. But then it’s difficult to control what appears once the wood dries out. I made tests using wax/oil varnish with different amounts of Colron ‘Medium Oak’ and there was little difference between the wet and dried results.

David Neat model-maker, samples using Osmo wax-oil medium plus Colron wood stain on obeche

It was particularly important for me to make test samples here, because to reflect the distinctive tongue-and-groove cladding of the original I had to composit separately cut and sanded strips of obeche, otherwise there wouldn’t have been enough tonal difference between the strips. I was concerned though that staining might emphasize those lines in-between too much, but these turned out fine. On the left above I’ve just tried the wax/oil carrier on its own, and for the other two I added small amounts of Colron ‘Medium Oak’ Wood Dye. For those other two I also experimented with adding a little more colour variation using alcohol markers. I did this before the wax/oil was dry, though I think this could be done at any later stage. It shouldn’t be done before the wax/oil goes on though! .. I tried this with the same markers at the top of the middle sample piece. They came out much darker on the bare wood, whereas on the wax/oil the effect and strength is much easier to control.

Spectrum Noir markers, selection of 'browns' ideal for model wood staining

The markers I used were from Spectrum Noir available as a pack of six ‘browns’. I’ve found that these generally have a much richer ink than Winsor & Newton Promarkers, as well as lasting longer and being cheaper in the first place!

Osmo Wax Wood Finish

The wax/oil medium I’ve used is from Osmo .. the photo above includes the tins I still have after more than 20 years and the wax/oil still works perfectly! I used Osmo products quite a lot when I was living in Germany, they were always available at Bauhaus (equivalent to our B&Q here). I used them not only to protect or colour wood, but also to seal or paint any similarly absorbent surface .. even plaster!  In fact, it was a surprise but the Osmo treatment gave the cast plaster forms I was producing at the time the smoothest, best looking and most durable surface I could hope for! But Osmo ‘Wood Wax Finish’ (as it’s marketed in the UK) is intended for wood and comes either as clear, various whites, as a variety of wood stains, or in a small selection of basic colours.

On plaster as on wood, the first coat is likely to dry to a matt finish and a second coat is needed for a ‘satin’ sheen. Like any oil-based treatment the basic Osmo clear transparent will slightly darken any wood (though this is often not so noticeable with very light woods), and it also imparts a slightly yellow tinge (see further along for more on this). In the UK Osmo products have remained specialist, not stocked by any of the big DIY marts, so the best place to look for them is here

https://www.osmouk.com/retail/product.cfm?product=317

 

Generalizing brickwork

In this case there was every excuse to stylize, or rather generalize the brickwork exterior: it wasn’t an important visual part of the model’s function; I wanted to avoid slavish or fussy detail; and I wanted it to appear playful. There was also the fact that I’d really only had the architect’s plans as a guide in making the model, with just a few on-site photos available, so it was also a case of playing it safe. I wanted to emphasize the ‘warm and friendly’ in brick .. the ‘toy’ version of it, as I’d said, or as I imagined it might look mass-produced. I wanted to get a sense of textural richness and unifying pattern too, but time-wise to be able to get it relatively quickly! Embossing horizontal lines in 1mm foamed-Pvc was the quickest way I could think of to suggest the basic ingredient of a brickwork surface, and I’d done some texture tests with Rust-Oleum texture-spray for a previous project. The two effects just seemed to combine perfectly for what I wanted.

David Neat model-maker, archetectural model 2018, brickwork effect

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, generalised brickwork effect

I used an embossing tool to score the lines in 1mm Palight. These are basically like scribing tools but with a rounded point instead of sharp ( in the UK, Poundland has them in their nail art section ). I had to try a few different orange or rust-red sprays to get an idea of the right direction for the base colour ( using red primers or leftover Montana cans ) before I could settle on the best .. MTN 94 Phoenix Orange. I left the sprayed pieces to fix more than day before going lightly over with Rust-Oleum ‘Pebble’ Stone Textured Finish. These Rust-Oleum sprays spit out tiny gobs and streaks in two colours at once and the effect is often better when subtle, but also I didn’t want to hide the base colour too much.

David Neat model-maker, brickwork effect tests 2018

 

The baseboard

For the baseboard .. which is to be honest usually more hassle than enjoyment .. I was especially lucky that the smallest size of IKEA table-top suited the model perfectly! I’d strongly recommend these table-tops because they’re relatively light but suitably solid, in a variety of rectangular formats and a number of immaculate finishes including satin white, dark blue and beige. They also work out cheaper than ordering good quality MDF or plywood cut to size, plus if you pick up from store you can see what you’re getting. Incidentally, I like the idea of models having a certain size relationship with the human figure, just as pieces of furniture do. I feel that the small table-top format traditionally 4ft x 2ft average, now 1200 x 600, has a similar dimensional presence to a small person.

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, bird's eye view

David Neat model-maker, baseboard from IKEA

As I’d explained in Part 1 of this write-up, the ‘building blocks’ of the model were designed to be removable and I wanted to give them clear ‘footprints’ to lock into. This meant a raised surround with the shapes cut into it, not just a sprayed design on the floor. I was thinking here of the tactile experience of making objects connect, of feeling the joining more, rather than just sliding parts around. I cut the surround shape out of 2mm Palfoam (I’d waited to do this until I’d got all the room structures made, to make sure of a good fit). Instead of making each room as a box with the floor included I made them as open boxes to fit around floor shapes which became part of the base. I thought this was more interesting, as it gave the opportunity of revealing a more convincing ‘ground level plan’ underneath.

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, baseboard with 'polished concrete' floor areas and veneer surround

We’d gone through a few ideas for possible treatments of the surround, including a blotchy watercolourist abstract suggesting tree and shrub shapes seen from above. But from later building site photos it was unclear to me how many trees and shrubs would actually be remaining, and in any case I was running out of time .. so after thinking about a variety of quick surfacing options which would never have survived, I chose oak veneer because it was sympathetic and felt appropriate.

For the least possible hassle I wanted a veneer which was self-adhesive, also the best choice when cladding Palfoam. I’ve used these before and I’d recommend getting them from The Wood Veneer Hub because I think the prices compare well and delivery has always been quick. With veneers there aren’t usually many size options, for the 60cm width I required I had to get 2 metres, total cost around £45. The best way of organizing the sticking in this case was first trimming the veneer to a little over the length; laying it glue-side-up on a flat work surface; peeling off the backing paper; then carefully and slowly lowering the Palfoam surround shape onto it starting from one end. The thorough directions that came with the product recommended using what they call a ‘veneer scraper’ in other words a hard plastic smoothing blade with which to press down on the veneer strongly while sticking. I didn’t have one of these but I cut a rectangle in Palight, sanding the edge a little to prevent it from scratching. The adhesive is very strong but I think it pays to be thorough i.e. just smoothing it down with the hand or a cloth wouldn’t be enough.

Once this was done I could turn it over, place on a large cutting mat and trim the edges with a scalpel. Oak is a hard wood but the veneer is extra thin, so this wasn’t difficult. I’d made sure that I’d kept the backing paper so that I could put some back on the interior leftovers. Since I had trimmed the veneer from its underside, the final task was to smooth down all topside edges (120 grit sandpaper) because otherwise they would catch.

Wood veneer comes unfinished, that is, the wood surface may look beautiful and feel smooth but it will need protection from dust and dirt. Medium-tone woods like oak will quickly show darker finger-marks. So I knew that I would have to seal the wood surface but I really didn’t want it to go any darker. In the end I went a little the other way .. in the photo below I’ve laid a piece of untreated veneer over the final effect for comparison.

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, making veneer surround

Osmo Wax Wood Finish and Rustoleum Clear Sealer

It’s vital to make test samples before using any type of wood treatment because sometimes the results are most unexpected! Here below for example, the first two tests on the left were Rustoleum Clear Sealer a matt water-based sealer I’ve used in the past on lighter woods such as ash or sycamore. On those it worked perfectly, the sealing coat was practically invisible with no change in colour or tone, but for some reason on the oak it couldn’t have been more different! As a second test, I diluted the sealer 1:1 with water, and this was different but still surprising. For the third on the right I tried Rustoleum Furniture Lacquer a matt spirit-based finish which is normally intended as a protective coating for chalk paint. This result was much more as I’d expected.

 

David Neat, samples using different sealers on oak veneer

In the end I went for the Osmo Wood Wax Finish, mixing the clear version I had (No. 3101) with some transparent white (No. 3111). Below from the left is the straight clear, then the transparent white and lastly a 1:1 mix of the two which was the final choice. With any mix like this which contains some pigment it’s important to use a soft flat brush and to keep working the liquid into and over the surface to avoid any pigment pooling.

David Neat, samples using different sealers on oak veneer

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, veneer surround

In the course of working on this base layer I successfully solved a problem which had troubled me for a long time. How can you place a large cut-out shape (such as the one above) into exactly the position you want it (with a nice 1cm margin all round in this case), making any slight adjustments that might be necessary, but then stick it down without moving it from that exact position? Of course I’d thought about pencilled corner guides, even little corner blocks, to fix the position for later when the glue-covered surface is impatiently waiting! That’s the whole problem .. anyone who’s tried to manoeuvre a large, bendy, sticky sheet into exactly the right position before any of it starts sticking anywhere it shouldn’t will know the problem!

Ultratape Rhino Double Sided Carpet Tape

I solved the problem, thanks partly to double-sided carpet tape. This is a good one .. ‘Rhino’ Double Sided Carpet Tape, from Ultratape .. I’ve used it for years and it’s often sold very cheaply for some reason. I knew that this kind of smooth, thin carpet tape would be fine for securing smooth Palfoam to a smooth, manufactured surface (in this case painted MDF). It just doesn’t usually hold that long on porous, dusty or uneven surfaces.

I hoped that I could take full advantage of the fact that the tape could be fully applied, as shown below, and then stripped of its non-stick covering, but in stages. Take note of the little square of tape that I’ve put in the bottom right corner.

David Neat model-maker, using carpet tape to laminate on model baseboard

Once the taping was done I turned the sheet over, positioned it on the baseboard exactly as I wanted it, but then put whatever weights I had near the far three corners leaving that corner with the square of tape free. I could then carefully bend that corner up a little just to get at the tape covering and pull it out with tweezers. Then I could press this corner firmly down. Now it’s stuck at one corner and all the other corners are still fine. Then it was a case of carefully repositioning weights so that enough of the sheet could be flexed to get at the end corners of tape lines, to pull out the covering strips .. progressing in this fashion roughly diagonally from where I started. Incidentally I had to use this photo taken to remind myself where I’d put the pieces of tape because they’re not all easy to see once the sticking starts.

David Neat model-maker, weighting down base cutting while fixing in position

In the final part to come I will be looking at the various options for making the windows in the model.

An architectural play-model: Part 1

 

David Neat, architectural model, 2018

I was asked to make a model of gallery rooms newly added to a private house in Hampshire, and have been working on this part-time for the last few months. The focus was on the interiors, since the idea was that the owners could use the model to explore different arrangements of the contents, but it was agreed that the model could also have an aesthetic presence of its own .. as a sculptural object in itself .. so I took the freedom to stylize aspects of the exterior and to avoid fussy detail. After initial talks with the friends who’d commissioned it the model developed its ‘plaything’ nature .. somewhere between dollshouse and construction kit .. as it progressed. From the beginning the plan was that there would be detachable sections, making it possible to peer into parts of rooms, but that these ‘building blocks’ could be quickly and cleanly reassembled again. This suggested a baseboard with cavities into which room sections could be slotted into place .. further adding the qualities of ‘jigsaw’ and ‘puzzle’ to the aspect of play.

We wanted the roof structures to be represented, mainly to illustrate how the interiors are crowned by these light-receiving cones. But I only wanted to ‘outline’ them as it were, and they needed to be detachable. Giving them any suggestion of their external nature would have made them too heavy-looking, so I took advantage of their separateness to make them  ’emblems’ in yellow Palight.

David Neat, architectural model, 2018

David Neat, architectural model, 2018

David Neat, architectural model, 2018

 

Working with Palight and Palfoam

Once again I wanted to use my favourite foamed PVC for most of the build, because it is one of the most manageable and versatile materials I know! Using this would also mean that the individual ‘room blocks’ would not become too heavy while still being structurally very solid. At the chosen scale of 1:25 the main walls came to roughly 15mm thick in the model, while the interior walls could be represented with 5mm. I had quite a large stock of 5mm, but I chose to build each section of thick wall as a ‘sandwich’ i.e. solid 5mm PVC both sides, with a 5mm thick framework in between. This was partly to reduce the weight ( and therefore the stress on the boxes ) a little more, but also because I wanted to build in a continuous groove along the tops of the walls to slot the ceilings into. In retrospect I wouldn’t do it this way again if I could help it .. it was an awful amount of cutting, sanding, aligning and gluing!

David Neat, architectural model 2018, detail of foamed PVC walls

Here in the UK Palram’s ‘Palight’ brand foamed PVC is available in white or a small selection of colours, and comes in a few different thicknesses. But of the white only the 1mm thickness is actually Palight. In the thicknesses from 2mm to 10mm ( there used to be thicker, but no longer it seems) the material is Palfoam. This is important to know, and to check when ordering, because Palfoam is softer. This makes it even easier to cut ( with a scalpel for example, as I do, and especially if one cuts along the extrusion grain i.e. along the less bendy direction ) and it glues together even stronger because the cut edges are more porous. But the surface of Palfoam is much more susceptible to scratching, so something needs to be done about it if it’s being used for a model that’s going to be handled.

David Neat, architectural model 2018, white wall texture samples

I knew that I was going to clad the outsides anyway with whatever I came up with for the brickwork effect, so my first task was to find a covering which would be suitable for the interior walls, which in reality were just white-painted plasterboard. Apart from the practical durability aspect I wasn’t happy with the idea of just white PVC walls anyway .. it’s the most uninteresting, lifeless form of white! One possibility was cladding the interior with Daler Rowney ‘Georgian’ oil painting paper ( on the left above ) which is quite a tough 250gsm, primer-coated and ‘linen’ textured paper. This is available as pads or sheets. The other idea was evenly stippling Polycell’s Fine Surface Polyfilla directly onto the PVC ( shown on the right ). I’ve textured PVC this way before  so I know that it stays put and resists scratching better than the plastic alone. It’s tricky at times to maintain an even quality of stipple, and the oil painting paper was the easier and quicker of the two to do, but I was worried that the paper could scuffing at the edges after repeated handling. Fine Surface Polyfilla is also a more sympathetic, slightly warmer white, so I chose this for the wall treatment.

David Neat, architectural model 2018, detail of stippled texture on walls

 

Simulating polished concrete

The most important aspect of the interior, the part which needed to look ‘convincing’ above all else, was the polished concrete floor. Especially so, since floors assume greater significance in models than in real life, because we’re mostly looking straight down on them. That usually can’t be helped, but it’s one of the reasons why we chose to make the model in removable parts, making it possible to get more of the ground level perspective.

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, polished concrete floor

David Neat model-maker, architectural model 2018, polished concrete floor

I was originally going  to go with a method I’d tried before, using matt photo prints of actual concrete and achieving the polished look by spraymounting clear acetate on top. I’ve used this technique for very convincing marble or polished wood, easy to play around with because the parts can be ‘tweaked’ separately instead of having to achieve it all-at-once, and satisfying to look at because the surface effects ‘come from within’ rather than lying opaquely on top. Incidentally, it’s interesting to observe from the last three photos how .. even in simulations! .. the particular warm greenish-grey of concrete can alter quite a bit dependent on the light. I’ve noticed many times in real life how much concrete can change its mood under different lighting.

David Neat model-maker, recycled paper

As I was saying, I’d planned to create the concrete with photos but by chance I happened to have a cheap, recycled paper that worked even better as a basis. These (above) were file dividers found in a £shop which I’d kept because their back surface was interesting. The grey ones were a good basis in terms of colour and mottling, a suitable warm greenish-grey, though a little too dark and too even. But I found that if I use a sanding sponge on the paper  I could make it lighter, while giving it a bit of animation.

David neat model-maker, simulating cocrete with recycled paper

David Neat model-maker, concrete effect samples

Embossing the back first with a serrated modelling tool created other distinctive patterns in the paper when sanded. I didn’t want this kind of patterning in this case, but it’s an interesting effect.

David Neat model-maker, polished concrete simulation using recycled paper and acetate

I had to cut the floor pieces out of 2mm Palfoam first, clad these in the paper ( spraymounting down using 3M’s Craft Mount, the strongest ), modify the paper surface by sanding, vacuum the surface to remove any dust .. then I could apply the acetate. This is straightforward ‘transparency film’ designed for printing on, sometimes also called ‘OHP film’ ( for overhead projection ). Hence it’s surface feels slightly rough on one side, because there are micro-deposits of clear priming material to help the ink to fix. It is this side of the acetate that needs to be spraymounted, then laid and firmly rubbed down over the paper. Now the glossy side of the acetate is on top. This is usually too glossy for a polished concrete surface ( though it depends what look you’re going for) so I take some of the gloss away by rubbing either with a kitchen scourer or very fine sanding sponge ( the kind painter/decorators use for matting paintwork ). This will deepen but also slightly lighten the effect.

David Neat model-maker, samples for a polished concrete floor

I felt in the end that my polished concrete was still a little too dark and not ‘beige’ enough, so I gave all the pieces a light and mottled dusting with Belton Molotow ‘Stone grey light’ spray paint. Above .. to the left is an example of the photoprint method (which in this case was far too busy and specific); in the middle is the recycled paper/acetate version; and on the right the final adjustment adding a dusting of spraypaint.

In the next part I will be talking about the baseboard, describing my methods for staining woodwork, and a ‘generic’ or stylized treatment for the brickwork.

 

1:10 scale furniture models

 

David Neat, 1:10 scale furniture models in photoshoot set, July 2017

I was recently asked by The New Craftsmen gallery in London to make a series of 1:10 scale models of a new furniture collection they were producing, conceived by the stylist Sue Skeen. The accurate models were meant to serve as a ‘portable collection’ to help show the range to customers and as publicity objects before the actual pieces were ready. The models were used in a photoshoot for World of Interiors magazine and were to be presented during the London Design Festival.

The image above is one from the photoshoot, for which I was asked to make a large model ‘set’ consisting of three distinct rooms with very bold, oversized decoration but including some realistic accessories such as doors, light switches and ‘retro’ radiators. These included the re-creation of a vintage fireplace as direct homage to the artist/designer Peggy Arnold whose work was one of the inspirations for the collection.

David Neat, 1:10 scale funiture models in photoshoot set

What had to be sorted out first was a reasonable scale in which to show the pieces to best advantage while still keeping them easily portable. At first 1:6 scale seemed reasonable, the size that Vitra use for their chair model collection .. but although that might work well for chairs, some of the new furniture pieces were over 2 metres long .. too bulky at 1:6 to carry many of them around, so we had to go for 1:10 scale.

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of 'Trunk' table with oak top, Inglis Hall and Sue Skeen

One of the next most interesting challenges was deciding how the range of different surfaces would be represented, particularly in terms of the scale. With surfaces it’s acceptable to play with scale up to a point .. in fact many surfaces wouldn’t ‘read’ well enough at a small scale so they need some exaggeration. A natural way of doing that for wooden subjects is just to use the actual wood. For example the table above has an oak top so I’ve used good quality oak veneer laminated onto a Pvc base. Oak veneer is too brittle for wrapping round the curved edge so here I used ash veneer instead. For this collection I had to do quite a lot of careful veneering to give the effect of solid tops or legs, because woods such as oak, ash, sycamore or Douglas fir are not available in ‘model friendly’ thicknesses apart from veneer. 

David Neat, 1:10 scale model, 'Trunk' table with oak top, Inglis Hall and Sue Skeen

David Neat, 1:10 scale models of 'Stick' tables, Inglis Hall and Sue Skeen

Likewise, the specific Formica pattern intended for these tables would have appeared too nondescript at a dutiful 1:10. On the other hand though, using the actual Formica wasn’t an option either .. impossible to work with, and in any case too bold at 1:1 .. so in the end I made my own graphic version of the pattern and printed it at a size I felt was right. I sealed this within acetate ( see later for technique ) which I rubbed with fine abrasive cloth to give the right ‘satin’ surface.  

David Neat, 1:10 models of 'Stick' tables, Inglis Hall and Sue Skeen

Representing a rushwork seat turned out to be simpler than I’d thought. I found that I could get quite a good suggestion by embossing/carving into 5mm foamed Pvc .. the material I turn to for solving just about everything! Once patterned I undercoated in a dark, warm grey acrylic and dry-brushed the lighter rush colours over.

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of bench with rushwork seat, designed by Sue Skeen and The New Craftsmen

David Neat, detail of 1:10 scale model, bench with rushwork seat. Designed by Sue Skeen and The New Craftsmen

For both the marble and the terrazzo tables below I was able to utilize methods I’d tried for the first time in an earlier job this year for The New Craftsmen and Christies. The marble effect here is a photo image printed on inkjet transparency film (also known as OHP film or ‘printable acetate’). The marble intended for the real table was a specific type called ‘Bianca Eclipsia’ and the supplier’s website had a number of usable images, and in this case it made sense to adjust one to the right 1:10 scale. The makers of transparency film recommend waiting 10mins for the ink to dry but in practice I’ve found that it takes much longer, like a few hours, before the ink is properly smudge-secure.

The marble top was to be 30mm thick in reality so I’d cut and shaped a piece of 3mm Palfoam (foamed PVC). After the image had dryed I lightly spraymounted it on the inked side (using the stronger 3M DisplayMount), pasted it firmly on the Palfoam, and carefully trimmed round the edge. It’s difficult to trim the acetate exactly around curves, even with a new scalpel blade, so I usually cut as close as I can and finish off by sanding with P120 sandpaper or finer. Sanding has to be done just in the downward direction (i.e. downward from the top surface) otherwise the acetate film will lift at the edges. With the acetate attached ‘smooth side’ up the image is now perfectly sealed within. That’s all fine now, if you want a glossy, highly polished surface, but most marble has a more tastefully subdued one .. as if frosted. This can be achieved by sanding the acetate either with fine ‘wet and dry’ paper’, decorators’ sanding pad or something else finely abrasive like the rough layer on a kitchen sponge. Now it feels even more that the marble pattern is coming from within the surface .. rather than lying dead on top like paintwork!

If evenly sprayed the acetate will remain secure on the surface, especially if there are no protruding edges left to catch. If in doubt, both the image and the base can be lightly sprayed at the same time for extra adhesion. I realized though that this method wouldn’t work for surfacing the edge .. a 3mm strip of acetate would never hold! I’d done some experiments before where I’d printed images on regular matte coated inkjet paper, sticking them ink side down on PVC, and washing/rubbing the paper part away. I found that the image was left almost completely on the PVC .. preserved in the chalky coating which had remained firmly stuck to it. So I filled in the marble pattern around the edge of the top that way .. printing more of the same on matte coated paper; cutting thin strips of it; pasting those ink side down along the edge; trimming the excess; soaking/rubbing off the paper.

Transferring images 'ink side down' comparing white and black bases

Above is one of the first tests I made of this method, comparing the effect (using a photo of treetops) of transferring onto white and black. What remains of the image after all the paper has been removed is semi-transparent .. but I was surprised at how much of the detail and colour still came out against black. Especially if a strong glue is used e.g. 3M DisplayMount or PhotoMount, the image is very secure .. hardly possible to scratch it off even!

Going back to the inkjet transparency film for a moment .. I had used the one sold at Ryman’s, A4 size and 100microns thick (which I think they all are). Ryman’s seems to be changing their products now, so I’ve put a link here to the same material from PhotoPaperDirect. Wherever they’re from these sheets cost between 50p – £1 each.

http://www.photopaperdirect.com/products/A4-Inkjet-Overhead-Transparency-Film-OHP-Film.html

David Neat, 1:10 scale model, marble table, designed by Sue Skeen and The New Craftsmen

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of marble table, designed by Sue Skeen and The New Craftsmen

I went into such detail describing the ‘print transfer’ method I used on the marble table edge .. because I then used it to create this ‘terrazzo’ table model below. Like all the table-tops here and many of the other elements, the basic form was made out of Palfoam ( or Palight if it needed to be a bit tougher). The ‘look’ of the table-top and the choice of marbles and granites were fairly well defined by the client, though an actual table was yet to be made at that time. I colour-printed a range of images; chose the best areas and drew the shapes on the unprinted side; pasted each piece in place printed side down; soaked and rubbed off the paper. It’s important to remember that this is likely to work best on a white base and I should note that sometimes definition and colour may be a little subdued because we’re seeing the backside of the ink, as it were, soaked into a minutely thin chalky layer.

After the surface was cleaned up and dried I emphasized the edges of each shape with a slight, embossed line. In the real table these would probably be completely flush, so this is another of those little ‘enhancements’ to realism, and to clarify that it’s more than just a printout.

David Neat, 1:10 scale model, 'terrazzo' table, designed by Sue Skeen and The New Craftsmen

David Neat, 1:10 scale model, 'terrazzo' table, designed by Sue Skeen and The New Craftsmen

My process of veneering

The best sources I found for a wide range of wood veneers were Vale Veneers woodveneeruk.co.uk and Wood Veneer Hub thewoodveneerhub.co.uk. Vale Veneers had the smaller range but a handful of common woods in particularly ‘flexible’ paper-backed form, c. 0.6mm thick. This was the type I was hoping for because it generally lies flatter and can be stuck down evenly without using a lot of pressure. I had imagined paper-backed veneer might be pricey but the cost from Vale Veneers was generally about £3.50 per sq foot. Originally the remit from The New Craftsmen included pieces in the less common sycamore and Douglas fir but these were available from The Wood Veneer Hub for a similar price though not paper-backed.

I made the basis (that is, the underlying material of each piece) of this oak ‘settle’ from Palight foamed Pvc. Each piece would then be clad on both sides with 0.6mm oak veneer. The visible edges would also have to be clad and this slight dimensional difference had to be foreseen and compensated for when cutting out the Palight pieces .. there’s a lot of searching, logical thought going into this but that’s what I most enjoy, even though I might not be the best at it sometimes! Oak is not very pliable even in veneer form so for covering the curving edges I had to use ash veneer .. the difference in tone should not be so noticeable at this size and if it is it can always be tinted to match. The same applied to the birch dowel used for the legs.

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of oak settle, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

The correct order for cladding is .. edges first, and then faces because they’re more visible. It means that any join-lines will be on the edges where they blend in better with the other edge lines. In the event of visible gaps these are much easier to fill and disguise if they occur on the edges. For the edges I cut long strips wider than needed and, surprisingly, in the direction of the grain .. normally this direction is the least flexible but I found that ash veneer could do it and when I’ve tried thin strips against the grain they just didn’t look right. After I’d pulled, glued and pressed the edge strips in place I needed to trim them near with the scalpel and finish off with a sanding plate (i.e. a thin piece of wood or plastic with P120 sandpaper attached). I did the same with the face cladding later.

I used superglue throughout. Both on the edges (applying to the plastic, moving along bit by bit) and on the faces (applying a rapid network of thin-ish lines to the plastic, especially the outline, and pressing all at once).

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of oak settle, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

All the tables were designed with ‘quadrant’ profile legs .. two sides of a square on the inside and a 1/4 circle curve on the outside. This was a very pleasing shape with also a lot of variety to it when seen from different angles. Most of the tables had painted legs and frame, so I shaped a prototype leg, made a few moulds and cast them in resin. However, the table below was to be solid Douglas fir, top and legs, so I had to mould and cast a thinner versions and veneer them .. hoping that I could get the veneer to stay with the curve. As it happens this worked fine mainly thanks to the effectiveness and speed of thin superglue in sticking wood veneer to PU resin, especially since the Oregon pine (the only available version of Douglas fir) fought a bit against bending.

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of Douglas fir (Oregon pine) table, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

Protecting model wood

Much as one might like to in order to preserve its naturalness, there’s no way that a wooden model can be left untreated if it’s going to be handled. It absorbs natural  grease and dirt from the fingers, this is turn attracts and fixes dust, and in no time the wood appears grubby. But the wrong choice of treatment can be just as demoralising!

David Neat - tests for best clear, matte wood varnish or sealant - June 2017

I wanted a coating that would hardly change the appearance of the untreated wood, certainly not make it visibly darker. Also, I couldn’t afford that the treatment would have any permanent warping effect on the veneer as some of the elements were quite thin .. and this can often happen when a water-based medium is used.

I did a number of tests with different clear ‘varnishes’ including oil; spirit-based matte and water-based matte.  In the end there were two very different mediums that did exactly what I’d hoped for .. RustOleum Clear Sealer which is water-based and OsmoColor Dekorwachs which has a wax/oil base (this is the German version from more than 20 years back when I was living there. Names and packaging  may have changed but Osmo products have remained essentially the same).

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of ash bench, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of ash bench, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

I painted the RustOleum wood sealer as thinly as possible and undiluted on sample wood swatches. There was a little curving but within a couple of hours these were perfectly flat again. Also, after drying I couldn’t even tell which pieces of sample veneer I’d painted! I knew there wouldn’t be a warping issue with the Osmo wax/oil, but I’d expected significant darkening. The next day after proper drying the change in tone of the wood was only very slight! Because wax/oil penetrates into the wood more than water-based sealer and different woods will react to this in different ways, there could be more darkening with some of them. A solution to this is to add a very little amount of white, preferably using the ‘transparent white’ version of the same medium if there happens to be one.

David Neat, wood treatments compared - RustOleum clear sealer and Osmo wax

Using gloss paints in models

I was never a fan of using the ‘older style’ .. i.e. spirit or oil-based .. gloss paints in models because there were always problems! Here’s the shortlist: – unless the surface to be painted is immaculate, every imperfection becomes very noticeable; unless this surface is evenly primed or suitable for the paint the ‘gloss’ that results after drying can turn out patchy; gloss paints used to be notoriously unstable, needing religiously thorough mixing beforehand and sometimes failing to dry properly even then; during a lengthy drying process the surface is bound to catch some dust particles whatever the precautions.

On a more important level than all that hassle, there was my emerging notion that ‘gloss’ just doesn’t translate in scale anyway! That something a bit more subtle and light-friendly .. like ‘satin’ .. conveys ‘glossiness’ better in the smaller scale?

However, part of my brief was to use the gloss paints that would eventually be used on the real items .. a good idea, yes, but only in terms of colour matching as it turned out. The new breed of acrylic water-based gloss paints may be progressive in some important ways .. but they’re certainly not for painting models! They .. at least, the ones I was given .. are thick, not opaque enough, non-levelling and they congeal so fast when brushed on that it’s difficult to even out the paint layer .. even on small areas! In spite of firming up far too quickly, they also seem to take a long time to ‘dry’ fully! I found this out when I took a handful of painted swatches to a meeting .. they had stuck together, a full week after painting them! I managed to make the surfaces look reasonably clean and streak-free in the end .. but it took a lot of effort. I made each item of painted furniture in Palfoam Pvc which I ‘grained’ very slightly by drawing P120 sandpaper in straight lines across (to suggest painted wood). I had to prime the Pvc first and because the gloss paints had too much transparency I used Humbrol enamels as an undercoat, mixing as near as I could get to the final colour. The adhesion between Pvc/enamel and enamel/acrylic was first-rate!

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of painted settle, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

I had to make two versions of the ‘Peggy’ chair, as it was called .. one plain ash and the other gloss grey. As with the settles the legs are dowel but needed to be 4mm diameter and this doesn’t normally exist! Luckily there was just one online source that did have this size but in ramin wood.

David Neat, 1:10 scale models of 'Peggy' chairs, designed by Sue Skeen for The New Craftsmen

Lastly I wanted to include here a picture of the ‘Peggy Arnold’ fireplace on its own. I was fond of the way this looked! I used an original Peggy Arnold pattern, printed on gloss photo paper in grey tones, for the tiling. The last promising discovery was that Marabu GlasArt glass paints make excellent wood varnishes! Here I have used the ‘Brown’ as it came (they can be thinned with white spirit). One coat brushed then evened out with a tissue will create a good matte cover, but after this first coat has dried for a day a second will give a nice, even silk/gloss.

David Neat, 1:10 scale model of 'Peggy Arnold' fireplace

 

 

An essential model-making tool

David Neat, essential model-making tools, solid metal guide blocks

I’ve always made a point of recommending these! I don’t know how I would get things done these days without solid, right-angled steel blocks .. to use as guides for construction, for gluing against or weighting down. I’ve noticed though that my enthusiasm has varied between ‘absolutely essential’ to ‘very useful’. The reason for my occasional reticence is that up to now I haven’t been able to recommend a reliable source .. but now I can! I’ve just received these .. seven in all .. which I ordered from  https://www.metalmaniauk.com/ because I’ve always wanted to use them on my courses.

In the past I had assumed that the custom cutting charge would be too high but these seven cost me all inclusive £33.10. I chose the ‘Bright Flat Mild Steel’ which has the essential square ‘sharp’ edges; and the bar type ‘1 x 3/4’ inches, which I felt was the smallest limit before the blocks lose the necessary weight; and I decided that a 15cm length would be fine for most tasks. Here is the specific link to the product

https://www.metalmaniauk.com/Steel/Bright-Flat-Bar/Bright-flat-mild-steel-bar-1-x-34.aspx

MetalMania do not have a minimum order so one could buy just one of course. This would cost £3.80 for 15cm, but postage within the UK seems to be fixed at £6.50 up to a few kilos so it would make more sense buying two or three.

A recap on why they’re so useful

I’ve written about them many times both here and in my book. The most useful application is when gluing two pieces on edge, applying glue to one and then positioning the two pieces together against the metal block so that one can be sure of getting a clean and straight edge.

David Neat, Using metal blocks to aid construction

It is especially important having this firm ‘stop’ when using superglue because it has to be right first time and .. more importantly .. it doesn’t matter if superglue squeezes out onto the metal because it won’t stick to it strongly. The piece just needs to be ‘popped’ off. You have to remember to scape the metal surface clean with a scalpel occasionally because it can build up. If you have two blocks, as below, you can construct perfect corners!

David Neat, Using metal blocks to aid construction

Blocks of any kind with enough length are also invaluable when trying to layer thin strips on top of each other i.e. for these decorative mouldings.

David Neat, Using metal blocks to aid construction

They can also be useful for holding elements in place while gluing, as below where I’ve taped a curving piece of styrene between them to hold it in that position while I brush plastic solvent into the join. The same can be done with thin superglue.

David Neat, Using metal blocks to aid construction

 

Finally, and by the way .. I feel it’s worth noting that dealing with MetalMania was a smooth experience with a couple of pleasant curiosities! In the first place their website is different from what I’m used to when trying to get hold of heavy-duty industrial materials .. bright, friendly and simple to understand. Delivery was trackable and came within 4 days using Parcel2Go .. not the usual kind of breathless courier at the door but three teenage girls! I didn’t find out why because they didn’t seem to want to be quizzed about it. On the MetalMania website they state under the heading ‘Animal Policy’ that ‘It is this companies policy NOT to supply any organisation or individual involved in animal experimentation of any kind’. Currently on the website is also a condolence message for those affected by the attacks in Spain which is accompanied by this photo. I don’t know what to make of it .. but it’s really got me thinking!

condolence message

 

‘Contemporary Living’ at Christie’s South Kensington – Part 2

Miniature exhibits from the interactive model for 'Contemporary Living' at Christie's, made by David Neat 2017

If you want to see Part 1 of this series just scroll down to the previous entry, which will also give fuller information on the context. This was a commission from the London gallery The New Craftsmen for an ‘interactive model/installation’ exhibited at Christie’s during ‘Contemporary Living: Art, Craft and Design’ April 1-4 2017. The exhibition brought together work from Christie’s, The New Craftsmen and the South African gallery Southern Guild. All in all I had to make more than forty model versions of the exhibits complete with decorated plinths, which anyone could then move around to ‘curate’ their own exhibition within the space.

Here I am presenting a selection of my model versions accompanied by the publicity photos I was working from and a little information about each artist/designer. I have also included some notes on the materials or the techniques I’ve used to simulate the objects.

Porky Hefer

Models of Porky Hefer 'Fallen Bird's Nest' and Charles Haupt 'Num Num Branch', Southern Guild, made by David Neat

South African artist Porky Hefer’s Fallen Bird’s Nest is in reality woven ‘kooboo’ cane with a leather cushion. If I’d been able to allocate more than just a couple of days to this interesting piece I would have attempted weaving very thin, soft wire or even tried a 3D printing ‘pen’. But I had to settle for making a basic wire armature, then modelling both canework and cushion in Super Sculpey, painted with acrylics.

Porky Hefer 'Fallen Bird's Nest', model by David Neat

 

Porky Hefer 'Fallen Bird's Nest', kooboo cane and leather, courtesy of Southern Guild

Above the original Fallen Bird’s Nest, kooboo cane and leather, courtesy of Southern Guild.

Charles Haupt

Charles Haupt 'Num Num tables', models by David Neat

Charles Haupt works in bronze, with his own art foundry called Bronze Age in Cape Town. His speciality is making cast bronze components which can be configured in various ways as table supports or stands. For these he takes his inspiration from the regular thorns of the native South African Num Num shrub. For me these pieces were the most challenging to represent, partly in keeping them as thin but smooth as possible and also because, in the case of the tables, the structures have to be very finely tuned to meet both the ‘floor’ and the level tabletop.

Featuring Charles Haupt 'Num Num' coffee table, courtesy Southern Guild

Luckily I could snip out the basic shapes in pre-welded wire mesh, then model a thin, smoothed layer of Milliput to achieve the distinctive appearance. This needed a lot of delicate sanding before basecoating in dark matte acrylic, then dry-brushing Treasure Gold wax-gilt finish. The thin acrylic table tops had to be secured to the supports with the merest dots of superglue.

Charles Haupt 'Num Num Branch', model by David Neat

Previously the original Num Num Coffee Table in cast bronze and glass, and below the Num Num Branch in polished bronze. Photos courtesy of Southern Guild

Charles Haupt 'Num Num Branch', polished bronze, courtesy of Southern Guild

 

Miniature exhibits from Christie's 'Contemporary Living', interactive model made by David Neat

The ensemble above features some of the smaller works presented by The New Craftsmen from Nic Webb, Edmond Byrne and Leah Jensen. In the model I represented smaller works such as these in a slightly larger scale to reinforce their presence alongside the larger pieces.

Edmond Byrne

Edmond Byrne 'Glass Bowl with kaolin patina in amber', model by David Neat

Edmond Byrne is an Irish glass-blower whose technique involves blowing into hand-made moulds. Byrne lines these moulds with various materials such as clay or fabric which impart rough, matte effects on the cooled glass surface, in contrast to the sleek and glossy interior.

The easiest way I could achieve this in the model was by doing a similar thing .. by modelling a shape then making a mould from it. I then coloured some clear, viscous epoxy resin (Poundland epoxy adhesive) with a smudge of oil paint and spread it into the mould. To enhance the dusty patina on the outside I removed the cast while still a little tacky and brushed talc into the surface.

bowl making process

Below the original Large textured glass bowl with kaolin patina in amber. Photo courtesy of The New Craftsmen.

Edmond Byrne 'Glass Bowl in amber', courtesy of The New Craftsmen

Nic Webb

Nic Webb 'Moon Jar', model by David Neat

There were two very beautiful pieces by Nic Webb .. the sycamore Moon Jar represented above and the boxwood Lost Vessel below. Webb had given the sycamore a rich, dark finish which, as it turned out, I could suggest fairly well in slow-baked Super Sculpey with a few coats of brown shoe polish. Apart from the scorched interior the boxwood Lost Vessel was much paler so I had to use paint .. and never really got it! I realise now that I might have done better if I’d used a mix of translucent, cream and light brown Sculpey without needing to paint.

Nic Webb 'Lost Vessel', model by David Neat

Below the original Lost Vessel and Moon Jar courtesy of The New Craftsmen. The colours in this quick reference photo are not accurate.

Nic Webb 'Lost Vessel' and 'Moon Jar', boxwood and sycamore, courtesy of The New Craftsmen

Stanislaw Trzebinski

Stanislaw Trzebinski 'Mesa Ya Mwamba' model by David Neat

The young South African designer Stanislaw Trzebinski takes inspiration from marine forms, especially the ‘sea changes’ effected by aquatic organisms. Apparently he envisioned his sturdy tables as if underwater .. floating and transforming. As wood he uses muninga (also known as kiaat in Afrikaans) which is warm with a distinct, lively appearance. I wanted to trial a different technique for simulating this and needed it highly polished.

I was pleased with the results obtained surfacing the plinths with patterned acetate so I tried the same with the table surfaces .. finding a suitable image; adjusting the scale and printing on inkjet compatible film, which was then spraymounted onto the Pvc table top, ink-side down (once it had dried on the film, which can take a while!).

Stanislaw Trzebinski 'Mesa Ya Mwamba' model by David Neat, detail showing surface

One of the virtues of this method is that the pattern feels ‘within’ the surface (rather than sitting on top, like paint). Inkjet ink is transparent, so layers can be superimposed for richer, darker effects. Lastly, the top surface of the acetate is a perfect ‘mirror’ gloss, if this is the aim, but it can also be subdued as I’ve done here by rubbing with scouring sponge or superfine sanding pad (available from specialist decorator’s shops such as Leyland). When cladding a surface in this way it’s always better to cut the image slightly larger; spraymount onto the image; press and rub onto the host surface; turn over, and trim the edges with a fine scalpel. I’ve used 3M Display Mount for a strong bond.

I used strong, thin glassfibre rod for the legs (because it bonds well to the Pvc top) then modelled the details in Milliput. Below is the actual table, entitled Meza ya mwamba, cast bronze and kiaat, courtesy of Southern Guild.

Stanislaw Trzebinski 'Meza ya mwamba' table, model by David Neat

David Krynauw

David Krynauw 'Jeppestown Waiting Bench', model by David Neat

The Johannesburg designer David Krynauw chose panga panga wood (related to wenge) for this version of his Jeppestown Waiting Bench. In it he’s paid homage to the traditional riempie furniture method (using worked leather thonging for seats or backs).

I cut the basic framework out of 2mm Palight, then there was a deal of edge smoothing. Of course I had to take a shortcut with the criss-cross thonging (which in reality is surprisingly thin), substituting pieces of plastic embroidery mesh. Below is the real Jeppestown Waiting Bench, panga panga and leather, courtesy of Southern Guild.

David Krynauw 'Jeppestown Waiting Bench', Southern Guild

Meyer von Wielligh

Meyer von Weilligh 'Leaf Sideboard', model by David Neat

‘Meyer von Wielligh’ is the duo Norman Meyer and Abrie von Wielligh. They have created a number of versions of their Leaf Sideboard .. this one using ash wood and steel, the leaf patterns inspired by leaves scattered on the floor of Knysna Forest, in the Garden Route area of South Africa.

For me, once again Palight foamed Pvc came to the rescue, because it can be easily embossed .. sparing me the chore of inlaying real wood veneer which wouldn’t have done the job at that scale anyway.

Meyer von Weilligh 'Leaf Sideboard' detail, model by David Neat

Below is the photo reference for Leaf Sideboard, solid ash and steel, courtesy of Southern Guild.

Meyer von Wielligh 'Leaf Sideboard, ash wood and steel, courtesy of Southern Guild

William Waterhouse and Louisa Loakes

William Waterhouse/Louisa Loakes 'Cherry Day bed', model by David Neat

For their Cherry Day bed collaboration William Waterhouse made the structure and textile designer Louisa Loakes hand-printed the mattress and head-roll. They both work in London, William specialising in furniture and installation pieces often employing movement and mechanisation. I found it easiest and ‘neatest’ to model mattress and roll in Sculpey, then paint with acrylics. The written dimensions suffered in transit, so my version ended up a little short!

William Waterhouse & Louisa Loakes 'Cherry Day bed', cherry wood and steel, hand-printed fabric. Courtesy of The New Craftsmen

One of William’s kinetic installation pieces was included in the exhibition; the Beaufort (Air Powered Machine) .. a mesmerising chandelier-like structure fed from an unseen air pump. Since I couldn’t hang anything in the model, mine had to rest as if ‘off duty’ on a plinth.

William Waterhouse 'Beaufort (Air Powered Machine)', model by David Neat

Photos of the original Cherry Day bed, cherry wood and steel with hand-printed textiles and Beaufort (Air Powered Machine) in brass and air, courtesy of The New Craftsmen.

William Waterhouse 'Beaufort (Air Powered Machine)', brass and pumped air, courtesy of The New Craftsmen

Heino Schmitt

Heino Schmitt 'Be Seated', model by David Neat

Heino Schmitt’s bench which he entitled Be Seated utilizes an unusually large piece of olive wood which he found on a river bed. Some of the original nature of the wood has been retained at the edges but combined with decidedly man-made elements in brass and steel. Once again I grained and painted Palight for the seat. Photo below courtesy of Southern Guild.

Heino Schmitt 'Be Seated', olive wood, brass and steel. Courtesy of Southern Guild

Trevor Potter

Trevor Potter 'Weaver Nest Lamp', model by David Neat

Trevor Potter’s Weaver Nest Lamp represents a fascination with a weaver bird colony near to his home. Like a number of the other South African designers he favours bronze, because of the freedom it gives to model in an amenable material such as wax before making inflexible in metal. A quote from him about the work is worth giving in full:

‘Nest-building exemplifies a drive to create and it is in this instinct, shared by all life, that consciousness shows its face and expression can be noticed’

My simple expression of it just involved Pvc, wire and Sculpey. Below is the original, bronze and glass, courtesy of Southern Guild.

Trevor Potter 'Weaver Nest Lamp', bronze and glass, courtesy of Southern Guild

‘Contemporary Living’ at Christie’s South Kensington – Part 1

 

Miniature exhibits and 'push tools' from the interactive model 'The Patron's House' exhibited at Christie's during 'First Open' April 2017

I have just finished work on a particularly interesting, rewarding .. and of course demanding! .. piece commissioned by the London gallery The New Craftsmen for a showing of their artists’ work in conjunction with pieces from the Johannesburg based Southern Guild and items from Christie’s contemporary collection. The ‘exhibition’ .. along with my miniature, interactive version of it .. will be briefly open to the public at Christie’s South Kensington under the title ‘Contemporary Living’  from April 1-4 before the auction process starts. So yes, it opened already yesterday .. but it’s public tomorrow from 9.00 – 17.00 and on Tuesday 9.00 – 17.00, continuing 18.00 – 20.30 .. admission free!

The idea was to include a playful, dollshouse-related, interactive model within a showing of applied craftsmanship and artist/designer furniture .. so that visitors can actually rearrange the exhibits according to their own preferences. ‘The Patron’s House’, as it’s titled in the show, is really a more simplified, ‘toyed with’ version of the exhibition space, but opened out to allow more access.

'The Patron's House' Contemporary Living at Christies, April 2017

'The Patron's House' David Neat, Contemporary Living at Christie's, April 2017

The work had to be done relatively quickly .. there were more than forty individual objects and, within the realm of the model, each piece had to have its own plinth. This was mainly for practical reasons, so that the pieces can be moved around without harming the delicate models. From the beginning we felt that the plinths should be somehow decorated .. stark white plinths may often be the safest option in real-space, but the model needed something more playful. In the end I opted for a mixture of patterned, plain white and veneer-clad plinths. Another thing that was clear to us from the beginning was that there needed to be some juggling with the scale of the objects themselves .. so that the smaller objects could retain enough presence in competition with the larger. This is a feature of traditional dollshouses .. whether intentional or not. I chanced upon the idea of making ‘positional rakes’ similar to those used by a croupier, because participants needed to be given more ‘reach’ .. we couldn’t do away with the three main walls because the ‘paintings’ would need them, so the model could only be comfortably accessed from one end.

'The Patron's House' David Neat, Contemporary Living at Christie's, April 2017

'The Patron's House' David Neat, Contemporary Living at Christie's, April 2017

I had the chance to take photos of the individual model pieces while they were still in my studio, so I’m presenting them here followed by the photos of the real-life pieces I’d been using as reference. I often only had one publicity photo to work from plus outline dimensions, though The New Craftsmen provided a thorough series including details and good ‘white balance’, which helped a lot when trying to assess true colours or identifying materials. Nevertheless with many of the objects I had to settle for a reasonable ‘overall suggestion’ or sometimes even a ‘playful variation’ on the essential look. This was just as well because it was perhaps inevitable that the galleries had to make some mid-term changes to the exhibits, meaning that what arrived was a different version of what I’d been working on. For each object I’ve also included some notes on the materials and the processes I used, some of which I developed specially for this work.

Conrad Hicks

Conrad Hicks 'Implement Table' and 'Copper Chaise', Southern Guild, models by David Neat

Conrad Hicks 'Implement Table', Southern Guild, model by David Neat

South African Conrad Hicks works principally with forged metals, in these cases copper and iron. I had to use real copper sheet to achieve the look but the verdigris is just an acrylic paint job. After experimenting with a few different scaled thicknesses of copper before it would behave, I finally spraymounted two of the thinnest together to combine the right strength with easy bending. I didn’t have to beat it! .. the texture was easily done with an embossing tool. Deciding what to use for the iron frameworks was difficult at first, but in the end cutting out shapes in 3mm black Palight ( foamed Pvc ) proved the best solution. Below are the photos I was referencing for Conrad Hicks Copper Chaise and Implement Table, both forged copper and iron, courtesy of Southern Guild.

Conrad Hicks 'Copper Chaise', Southern Guild

Conrad Hicks 'Implement Table', Southern Guild

I wanted the plinth decoration throughout the range of objects to be as noticeable but also as subtle as possible .. and I wanted it to last, and not get dirty from handling. I wanted colour and pattern to ’emerge’ from the surface .. so neither direct painting nor pasting paper prints would do! I also wanted the pattern to fade out smoothly at the top, otherwise it would clash too much with the objects. In the end I found that inkjet printing 100micron clear transparency film with found pattern images and gluing inked side down to the plinth Pvc with strong spraymount ( Photomount or Craftmount ) did a perfect job! To be safe I let the printed sheets dry for a day before using (the ink takes much longer to dry on acetate). I also needed to prepare special strip portions of the pattern images first, using the Graduated Filter in Paint Shop Pro to fade each strip at the top. Once applied and trimmed, I ‘silked’ the surface of the film to take away the gloss with fine abrasive cloth.

Sebastian Cox

Sebastian Cox 'Scorched Shake Sideboard', model by David Neat

Sebastian Cox 'Scorched Table', model by David Neat

The British furniture maker Sebastian Cox, represented by The New Craftsman, uses traditional woods .. specialising in coppiced timber and self-managed woodland .. but often subjects them to a very controlled surface scorching resulting in a deep black. For both his sideboard and large table I found again that black Palight worked best of all because I could vary the surface effects from a slight-sheen sanding for the sideboard to a deeper matte graining on the table. For the front doors of the sideboard, which in reality are composed of cleft ‘shakes’ .. a form of shingle traditional to Japan .. I had to texturise thin strips of 1mm white Palight, apply them, then paint them with matte black Humbrol enamel. I dry-brushed with a slightly lighter acrylic to further emphasize the texture. I felt that the table needed a simpler, veneered plinth .. in this case oak sealed with water-based ‘satin’ varnish. Below is the real-life Scorched Shake Sideboard, but since the table was a new work there is no proper photo as yet ( courtesy The New Craftsmen and Gareth Hacker Photography ).

Sebastian Cox 'Scorched Shake Sideboard', courtesy The New Craftsmen and Gareth Hacker Photography

Dokter and Misses

Dokter and Misses 'Kassena Isibheque', model by David Neat

Dokter and Misses are not a married couple in spite of what the name might imply, but a multi-disciplinary Johannesburg design company of more than two. One of their special ‘Editions’ .. as different from their ‘Products’ .. is their ‘Kassena’ collection, a unique looking range of robust wooden cabinets which are all hand-painted, inspired by the painted adobe structures of the Kassena people from the border region of Ghana. These cabinets contain drawers which are almost hidden apart from tell-tale hand slots .. because my time was limited I had to sacrifice this feature. For the same reason and also because of the minuteness of the scale I had to simplify the geometric patterning (which does actually represent texts in an indigenous writing system) and resort to Letraset to create an effect. Below is the original, hand-painted solid beech wood Kassena Isibheqe, courtesy of Southern Guild.

Dokter and Misses 'Kassena Isibheqe', Southern Guild

Bristol Weaving Mill

Bristol Weaving Mill, Rag Rugs ('Blue Ombre' and 'Yellow & grey'), models by David Neat

Also represented here by The New Craftsmen, BWM had two rag rugs in the show made by Juliet Bailey, one of the directors. In the model I mounted these either side of a freestanding plinthed wall piece. For the first time I felt I was using my usual recommendation to use painted sandpaper for carpets to good effect! I painted a very coarse sandpaper white first then detailed the colours in matte acrylic. Below is one of the two originals, the Yellow & grey courtesy of The New Craftsmen.

Bristol Weaving Mill, rag rug 'Yellow & grey', The New Craftsmen

Mock Mock

Mock Mock (Pieter Henning) 'Stone Tables', model by David Neat

Pieter Henning’s design label Mock Mock produces, amongst other things, simple combinations of copper and stone of which these ‘tables’ are an example. Henning comes from the Klein Karoo valley in South Africa. I didn’t stand a hope of bending and soldering flat metal strips at this scale so I cut the slender shapes from thin styrene sheet, combining with discs of thicker Pvc.

Detail of Pieter Henning's 'Stone Tables' for Mock Mock, models by David Neat

To suggest the coloured stone or marble patterns I started with a generalised base colour, then stippled spots of lighter acrylic using a piece of reticulated foam. Tissuing this before the paint was properly dry created a more natural and varied effect. The copper is simulated with Humbrol metallic enamel. Below are the items Southern Guild originally intended to send .. the ones which arrived were significantly different, not as colourful though of the same type. In a sense this didn’t matter .. it became part of the model’s separate and playful existence.

Pieter Henning 'Stone Tables' for Mock Mock, Southern Guild

Gareth Neal and Kevin Gauld

Gareth Neal & Kevin Gauld 'Brodgar Bench', model by David Neat

The ‘Brodgar Bench’ featured on the left above was designed by London-based designer Gareth Neal and made by Orkney chair maker Kevin Gauld. The model needed to be mainly wood, nothing else would have been right .. in the end I used a combination of obeche, limewood and bamboo for strength. For the woven straw back I resisted trying any woven fabric, fearing a fibrous mess .. so ended up engraving the weave pattern in 1mm Palight (to the right is a day-bed from Louisa Loakes & William Waterhouse which will feature separately in Part 2). Below, the original Brodgar Bench, oak with woven straw back. Courtesy of The New Craftsmen

Gareth Neal and Kevin Gauld 'The Brodgar Bench', The New Craftsmen

Jesse Ede

Jesse Ede 'Lunar Bench', model by David Neat

Lastly for this part, another very different form of bench from the South African Jesse Ede. Most of the original was cast in recycled aluminium, making use of the rough, pitted texture .. so Humbrol ‘silver’ enamel with a little sand mixed in simulated this perfectly. The distinctive slate shard was easiest to model in polymer clay then paint using my ‘open foam print’ technique. The photo of the Lunar Bench in recycled aluminium and Malmesbury slate is courtesy of Southern Guild. The photos illustrate how one needs to be wary of foreshortening when judging photos .. my proportions are fairly accurate!

Jesse Ede 'Lunar Bench', Southern Guild

 



 

 

 

Where to look for ready-made forms

I’ve compiled a new page List of sources for ready-made forms which I’ve put in the Materials section under ‘shaping’. If you’ve ever searched for something just the right size for puppet eyeballs, wondered whether you can get mini ‘taxidermy’ domes or whether there’s maybe a ‘magic’ way of making model bottles, you may appreciate this list and some of the tips included. I’ve copied the introduction and a short extract from the list here.

inside 4D modelshop, London

There are many instances where being able to take advantage of a pre-formed shape could not only save a lot of time but also opens up exciting possibilities .. promoting the work beyond one’s technical means. But often the thought of having to take the ‘time out’ to hunt down the right something is a dissuader, as is the notion that somehow using something ready-made is a bit of a cheat! I started this list originally to encourage myself to make more use of the ‘ready-made’ by having a quicker overview, but also because whenever I came across useful ‘things’ I never knew where to note them down for the future.

I’ve tried to divide the list into categories as far as possible, so here is the ‘Table of Contents’:

Discs especially small, in various materials; Domes flattened or semi-circular, whether thin/hollow or solid, including taller display domes; Spheres or balls whether hollow or solid; Ovals in 3D; Wheels and cogs; Teardrop shapes; Cones mainly solid; Straight dowels, rods, cylinders i.e. solid, circular in cross-section; Small rigid tube mainly plastics and metals; Larger round tubes including cardboard and plumbing supplies; Patterned rod or tubing because there are some; Curved or bendable rods, flexible tubing to include foams, Pvc and silicone, cable supplies; Rings; Trumpets, funnels etc; Eggs wooden or polystyrene; Blocks  ‘off the shelf’ and lastly Other forms for the rest.

Each section is organised by supplier and the underlined product titles are from the online catalogues so you can find them more easily in searches. The fact that this wording is sometimes specific and unpredictable is the reason why I’ve bothered to make a separate list in the first place .. after all, one could just do a Google search as/when needed .. but unless one uses many different search words some possibilities would always be missed! Prices were last updated in May 2016, all adjusted to include VAT. I haven’t just listed the cheapest, rather those suppliers who seem to offer the most useful range. If you have anything to add to the list your suggestions will be welcome!

 

Trumpets, funnels, ‘bottle’ shapes and superglue dosers

Heatshrink tubing or ‘sleeving’ is made from polyolefin plastic ( i.e. polyethylene, polypropylene ) and commonly used in electronics/electrics for wire insulation or bundling. It shrinks uniformly when heated with a heat gun, usually in the ratio 2:1 meaning it becomes half as small. It comes in different diameters and the clear versions are ideal for making small-scale ‘bottles’. Finer heatshrink tubing also makes very good ‘dosers’ for superglue work, to attach around the existing nozzle if more precision is needed (Poundland includes a few already in their packs of superglue bottles). I should note though that you will need a heat gun (preferably a small one) to shrink the tube uniformly as shown below.

clear-heat-shrink

www.cablecraft.co.uk

Easi-Shrink’ Heatshrink Sleeving available in small diameters 1.2 – 6.4mm, and bigger sizes up to 100mm. 3.2mm diameter is ideal for 1:25 scale bottles (since these are commonly 8-9cm wide). Price for clear 3.2mm £0.83 per metre.

heat-shrink tubing

www.e-deala.co.uk

1ml or 3ml pipettes e.g £10.99 for 500 3ml pipettes

1ml and 3ml pipettes

I’ve included these because there are sections that can be cut to make reasonably good model bottles (from the thinner 1ml) or glasses depending on the scale you need. Bear in mind that this polyethylene plastic is never ‘glass’ clear, it has a slight frosting.

www.modelshop.co.uk

Plastic funnel set 50, 75, 100 and 120mm diameter £1.85

plastic funnel set

www.partypacks.co.uk

Plastic party glasses are a good source of shapes, but online suppliers don’t usually list measurements except capacity in ml.

Clear Brights Plastic Champagne Flutes’ 148ml (like image but clear, uncoloured) £4.14 pack of 10

plastic flutes

 

New Blades 2015

For another year running I was so thankful that I didn’t miss the single, ever-so-brief chance last Thursday 11th to see New Blades 2015 the annual model makers recruitment fair at the Holborn Studios in London. In actual fact this was amazingly the 23rd year running and this unique event is organised each year by 4D modelshop on behalf of the colleges, featuring the work of graduating students from model making or special effects courses throughout the UK ( go to the end for more info on the colleges and courses ).

I have rather ambivalent feelings towards the terms ‘model’ and even more so ‘model maker’. Personally I cringe inwardly when I’m referred to as a ‘model maker’ because I feel it instantly reduces me to a fraction of what I am or what I’m involved with .. and judging by the quality, depth and variety of much of the work on show at New Blades 2015 I think the graduates deserve to feel the same! But however much I might dislike the term because of how little it’s understood ..seeing the show makes me very proud to be considered a ‘model maker’ too!

I’ve tried to include photos here of the work that most impressed or interested me this year, but I’ve also included work from past years which I felt was indicative of New Blades as a whole. Unfortunately, since there are no catalogues or online records of the exhibits, I was limited in the choice of photos and only had the names of the exhibitors, but no work titles or other info..

Thomas Hughes, New Blades 2015

From this year’s show above work from Thomas Hughes and below from Alex Brooker

Alex Brooker, New Blades 2015

This is not really a ‘review’ of New Blades 2015, just some thoughts on what I saw and on the regular institution the show has become over the years, because I feel that something so special deserves wider attention. The students, their tutors, the colleges and the organisers could do with more feedback, in spite of the show being very well attended during the brief time it was on.

But wider publicity is more for the benefit of the public than the contributors. There is work here that would not be seen anywhere else .. at least not so close and personal. Each year the chance comes along to focus on the type of painstaking, practical work that contributes so much to our media experiences .. if actors are venerated, almost worshipped by some, for igniting our imaginations why not the objects created too?

Imogen Nagle, New Blades 2015. Tiger mask

Also from this year above from Imogen Nagle and below from David Patterson

David Patterson, New Blades 2015

This is a great deal more than a ‘model making’ show .. it is a roller-coaster ride through some of the finest, most entertaining, most inspiring examples of physical making! It is a show about passion, dedication .. and breathtaking skill! At times it’s very difficult to connect the works on view with the young, hopeful people standing next to them during the ‘Industry Night’. The quality of many of the objects suggests more years of experience .. many years of practise and an ‘old school’ attention to detail. What comes across from the show as a whole is that the passion and dedication are so obviously shared by everyone involved with it .. the organisers, the tutors, the industry professionals and the commercial sponsors.

How can this rather diminutive word ‘model’ begin to do justice to the serious quality and vast range of the work produced. In this context the word has to embrace prosthetics, costumes, ‘cosplay’ artifacts, theatre and film props, puppets, animation sets, automatons, animatronics, character portraiture, creature design, architectural models, product design, museum and exhibition displays, sculpture, fine engineering and bespoke furniture.

Stephanie Bolduc, New Blades 2015. Still from 'Manoman'

Above still from Stephanie Bolduc’s short film ‘Manoman’ and below work from Alexandra Poulson, both from this year’s show

Alexandra Poulson, New Blades 2015

Below work from Matthew Cooper 2014

Matthew Cooper, New Blades 2014

Joanne Harvey, New Blades 2014

Above costume work from Joanne Harvey 2014 and below Ollie Knights from the same year

Ollie Knights, New Blades 2014

Perhaps the general tag of ‘model’ is not so bad in some respects though .. it is like a little signpost pointing to the ‘hands-on’, the physical and practical. Unlike some Degree shows objects are always centre-stage here, and partly because of that each show is packed with immediate focuses of interest .. but never feels cluttered!

'please touch' New Blades 2013

The roller-coaster experience may be a little unkind to the architectural or product models exhibited .. I always feel a bit sorry for them! They need a quiet zone of contemplation. They are often beautifully made, faultless, and they certainly have their devotees amongst the audience .. I would say the same for the custom vehicles .. but they’re not so likely to get the ‘popular wow’ vote.

Henry Welch, New Blades 2015

Above Henry Welch from this year and below Petre Craciun from 2014

Petre Craciun, New Blades 2014

Below Ollie Knights 2014

Ollie Knights, New Blades 2014

There are however prizes awarded in a number of categories, including ‘Best Architectural Model’ ( awarded in 2014 to Petre Craciun, above ). We all like being acknowledged ourselves and it’s difficult not to be moved when we witness the acknowledgement of someone we believe deserves it, but I feel that the prize-givings are more just a part of the entertainment. With so much variety, so much choice .. it can never be completely ‘fair’ .. I’d estimate a good 25% of the achievements in New Blades deserve the same accolade each year!

Speaking of choice .. in terms of subjects and treatments I’m guessing that students don’t have a completely free choice as to where or how to focus their efforts. If they want to get work these choices are conditioned by the market and tutors would be failing the students if they didn’t equip them to satisfy it and guide them towards it. So bearing this mind there’s always a surprising measure of individuality and innovation .. I’m just not sure that I want to see another Incredible Hulk, Elephant Man or Dobby the House Elf. I feel that no matter what skill or sensitivity is shown it’s getting hard to remain inspired by them.

Skilled makers don’t necessarily have to be innovators, or have great or original ideas, but in New Blades 2015 as in previous years there was no shortage of ‘special’!

Thomas Hughes, New Blades 2015

Above another piece from Thomas Hughes this year and below from ‘S.B’ 2013

S.B, New Blades 2013

Below another piece this year from Imogen Nagle, ‘Herman the merman’

Imogen Nagle, New Blades 2015 'Herman the merman'

The show also offers the unique opportunity to learn something about the making processes. As one comes to expect from design/practical Degree shows there are many portfolios to browse through which include detailed records of the designing and making process. What distinguishes New Blades in this respect compared to other Degree shows I visit is that many of the students really do take this aspect of ‘record keeping’ seriously .. as an integral part of their work. Often the work-in-progress photos are not merely snapshots, but carefully balanced and crafted works in themselves! I think this reflects the increasing importance of Internet presence, but also perhaps the increasing popularity of ‘making ofs’ as part of the entertainment.

Imogen Nagle, New Blades 2015 'Herman the merman' sculpt

Above ‘Herman’ sculpt from Imogen Nagle and below the ‘space bulldog’ maquette in progress from Thomas Hughes

Thomas Hughes, New Blades 2015. Space bulldog maquette in progress

But I feel one of the most important inspirations from this exhibition within the current climate is that much of the best work emphasizes the value of ‘fusion’ .. the discerning use of digital help and the perfect fusion of traditional hand-work and machine-enabled. Faced nowadays with a greatly expanded toolbox, ‘model-makers’ have to become expert ‘choosers’.

Rujie Li, New Blades 2015

Also from this year above Rujie Li and below Jack White

Jack White, New Blades 2015

It may be wrong to take perfection or absolute realism as benchmarks for judging the physical work .. one has to accept that if the work is destined for the screen it could undergo further transformation. Considering the fusion of practical and digital methods currently prevailing it may not make economic sense for a physical object to contain every nuance .. it may be quicker, easier and cheaper to add refinements digitally. On the other hand I’m guessing that the students are nevertheless encouraged to put as much as possible into the physical rendition. I was very glad that the exhibition gave the physical objects centre-stage, and that there seemed to be very few monitors or laptops around!

This year’s students haven’t exactly been ‘quick off the mark’ in getting their portfolios online, part of the reason why I’ve used examples from past years as much as from the present to illustrate the range and standards achieved. If you like what you see, you can see more work from this year’s or previous exhibitions at

https://www.flickr.com/photos/newblades/albums/

.. and go to the 4D modelshop website from May onwards next year to see when the next New Blades will take place.

There’s only one single and major fault with this show .. that it’s not on for longer, at least long enough for more of the public at large to appreciate what it offers! It’s always brief, but this year was extremely so. It’s a big ask in London though! It must cost a lot to stage it even for a couple of days and all money made goes towards the costs.

University of Hertfordshire, Character and creative effects

Above work from the University of Hertfordshire website

The colleges and courses

If you’re not a film/tv industry insider you may struggle to understand what is meant by ‘visual effects’ as opposed to ‘special effects’ .. and it’s even a little more complicated when it comes to courses! Course options are changing in accordance with constantly evolving territories. For example University of Hertfordshire offers three ‘Model Design’ BA choices .. ‘Character and Creative Effects’, ‘Model Effects’ and ‘Special Effects’. Arts University Bournemouth offers one comprehensive BA in ‘Modelmaking’. University of Bolton runs a BDes in ‘Special Effects for Film & TV’. University for the Creative Arts entitles their BA ‘Creative Arts for Theatre and Film’ and City of Glasgow College offers an HND in ‘3D Design: Model Making for the Creative Industries’.

.