Nature taking back

I’ve always been far more drawn towards the weathered, broken-down and decayed .. it’s very common amongst theatre and screen designers, and it reaches back to the Romantics. I live close to the Thames waterside and I enjoy the way the river transforms man-made waste into objects of beauty. But I’d like to think of this as more than just responding to an aesthetic appeal, rather it’s a statement of allegiance to nature.


Back in 2006 I found a simple wooden dollshouse in a local charity shop. It was in fairly good condition though unoccupied, unfurnished and very basic .. mass-produced in cheap plywood, probably from the 1940s or 50s. I kept it with me for a while but when I moved house in 2008 there was little room for it inside, and the only place to put it was on the outside landing. So at first inadvertently but then by design it became an ‘experiment’ .. exposed to the elements and open to the local wildlife. I’ve photographed its transformation a few times over the past years, but I think these latest .. on the verge of falling apart .. show it at its best!































Making a non-slip ‘gripping board’ and a bench hook

polyester grip fabric

I would imagine you’ve all seen this material or something similar .. textured rubber sheets for placing underneath rugs or mats to stop them sliding about. I’d bought this version from Poundland a few weeks ago for another idea which in the end didn’t work and so it was pure coincidence that I had it still lying around when I had to cut a lot of Pvc piping for another project. I’ve never bought myself a proper bench vise .. that probably says something about me, though I don’t know what .. and in the past I’ve made do with something like the setup below, the pipe slightly raised on a cutting mat with perhaps some kind of coarse cloth underneath for extra grip. It’s always worked, more or less, but it’s never been comfortable. Cutting mats grip the table well enough for normal knife cutting but rather lose it when the force acts across them .. such as when sawing.

trying to support Pvc pipe for cutting on table

So I tried a few cut pieces of this grip liner underneath and pressed down firmly in position as I would normally do, and I have to say that it worked incredibly well! Although there was a little give, it felt as if the pipe was in some kind of vise. By the way, as you’ve seen .. for once I prefer the American spelling as opposed to ‘vice’!

polyester grip fabric as support for cutting or sanding

I could have just left it like that and it would have been enough of an improvement, but I felt I was onto something and wanted to make a proper ‘gripping block’. I clad both sides of a piece of 8mm MDF with the material, using double-sided carpet tape to stick it down. The carpet tape needs to fill the surface, otherwise the grip material may ruck when the block is used. I thought initially of using rubber glue to attach the material but the carpet tape holds it well enough in place and it means that it can be easily replaced.

cutting block surfaced with polyester grip fabric

I call this a ‘gripping board’ rather than a ‘cutting board’ or mat because I hadn’t intended it to be cut ‘on’ so much, it’s more about helping to hold things steady while cutting slightly ‘off’ the edge of it, but there’s no reason why it couldn’t be used for both especially if a softer base such as chipboard is used. I found that the board gripped anything, round or flat .. plastic, wood or metal. It was just as beneficial when sanding ends or edges, as below.

sanding with gripping block underneath

I tried various thin strips or rods of metal which I’d hitherto only been able to cut using a small metal vise I have .. and it was, again, almost like having a vise! I find it bothersome to set up the vise every time I want to do this and it’s difficult to keep the surface of the metal undamaged.

using gripping block for cutting metal

I found it worked even better after I made a small ‘finger block’ surfaced with the grip fabric which meant that I could press down more firmly without crooking the fingers uncomfortably.

using gripping block with additional 'finger plate'

I’ve always thought I should make a bench hook so this was a good time to try my own augmented version! I just used a piece of laminated chipboard I had (this one 15cm wide, 20cm long) attaching end-pieces of timber (25mm x 15mm) firmly screwed. The screw-heads need to be countersunk!

simple bench hook build

The ‘bench hook’ is so-called because it hooks along the front edge of a work table to provide steadiness while sawing .. at least on the forward stroke! They have been around for centuries, and making one often used to be the first project in school woodworking classes. Here, below, are a couple of manufactured ones .. from

manufactured bench hooks

If I’d bothered to look at examples like these before I very hastily put mine together I would have made the timber end-pieces a little short on the right side (for right-handers) as shown above, so that the block could be sawn ‘on’ .. but I wasn’t using the right kind of wood for this anyway.

Nevertheless my idea of covering the working surfaces on both sides with the grip fabric turned out to be a significant improvement, because it gave even more steadiness on both forward and back strokes. Since it is only attached with double-sided tape the fabric can be easily replaced if it gets too damaged.

bench hook with grip cladding

using bench hook

I also found it very useful to have both the bench hook and the simple mat for supporting lengths of wood while cutting.

using mat as extra support


More work with styrofoam

I’ve made some additions to my .. according to the statistical accounts .. most visited page Shaping Styrofoam which is under ‘Shaping’ in the Materials section. One is that epoxy resin glue works very well to bond it! I’d always assumed that epoxy would damage it, in the way polyester resin does .. but no, it doesn’t dissolve it and the bond is very strong! .. and I’ve used the cheapest stuff around, the one from Poundland! The other addition deals with preparing styrofoam prototypes for mouldmaking and I’m reproducing the entry here. I’m also finally managing, by the way, to hint more at what I’m up to at the moment .. working towards a solo exhibition of my current sculptural work which will take place in or around September next year!

If a styrofoam shape is being made as a prototype form intended for casting it doesn’t need to be made particularly durable .. it only needs to withstand silicone rubber being either brushed or poured over the surface. It does however need to be sealed, because if not the silicone rubber will grab into the surface too much and become very difficult to separate. Vaseline (petroleum jelly) is an ideal temporary sealant in this case because it can be easily brushed or rubbed into the micropores without damaging the surface. If care is taken not to use too much of it the Vaseline will also even out the surface, although I’ve noticed that most of it is absorbed into the silicone anyway. The only problem is .. it’s very difficult to see where you’re applying it! The solution is to colour it.

base unit shaped from styrofoam

This is one of many base-unit prototypes I’m making for a sculptural work which I can describe best by its working title .. ‘the ridiculously organic construction toy’! The components of the ‘nature driven’ form system will be assembled by means of holes and joining-plugs, hence all the holes in the base. Once I’ve made the mould from this the base units will be cast in polyurethane. I found a laughably easy way to carve out clean holes in styrofoam and I will explain this method sometime soon.

pigmented Vaseline

The best way to colour Vaseline is to first mix a little powder pigment, in this case half a teaspoonful, with roughly the same amount of Vaseline to make a thick paste not unlike tube oil paint. I chose the ultramarine here because it’s a strong pigment and finely ground, combining smoothly with the Vaseline .. some powder pigments may be grainy or clump a bit, which is not so good! The half teaspoonful was sufficient to give a strong colour to c. 50g of Vaseline when I added this to it, but one could use far less pigment. For example, the pigment will stain a porous prototype, so you have to bear this in mind if you want to keep it or if it’s an object of value.

using coloured Vaseline to seal styrofoam

There were a couple of larger scratches in the surface which I needed to fill and I’ve found that soft modelling wax (this one is the Terracotta Modelling Wax from Tiranti) is the easiest to use, worked carefully in with a brush.

filling larger holes with modelling wax

That’s actually it .. surprisingly short this time!

Using plaster as a filler in polyurethane resin

I’ve been asked this question a number of times now .. whether regular plaster can be used as a filler for resin, in place of the other ‘white’ powders more commonly used such as talc, chalk dust, marble dust etc. Don’t forget that these are all versions of calcium carbonate and are chemically inert, whereas plaster is calcium sulphate and certainly not as ‘inert’ since it reacts so strongly with water. I hadn’t ever considered it as a filler, and hadn’t heard of any cases of it being used in regular practice. My advice up to now had therefore been to avoid it, because I assumed that it could affect the curing of resins. Plaster is hygroscopic meaning that it will readily absorb moisture from the atmosphere however well it might be stored. Powder pigments are the same, and I have found that the slight moisture in them will cause polyurethane to foam and expand a little even when just a little pigment .. i.e. up to 10% by weight of resin .. is added. So I always assumed that adding a more substantial amount of plaster would cause bigger problems .. not only affecting cure but probably also thickening the resin too much to pour properly. Yesterday I finally found the time to do some tests using a couple of regular plasters with polyurethane resin and discovered that although there are some adverse effects these could also be turned into benefits.

Expansion of polyurethane resin when filled with casting plaster

For the first test above I made a control mix of Tomps Fast Cast polyurethane resin without any filler .. 15g of each part, so 30g total. The mix set touch-hard in just a few minutes as normal, becoming a pale ivory solid (the cup on the left). I then did the same but added an equal weight (30g) of Crystacal R which is a fine, hard, ‘alpha’ casting plaster. As per usual with polyurethane resin, the whole amount of filler has to be mixed thoroughly with Part A before adding the hardener Part B.

Whereas mixing is usually very smooth using conventional fillers such as Fillite, the plaster/resin needed a lot more stirring before the lumps disappeared. But after some effort the two combined making a smooth but thick liquid .. like treacle. As usual though, this thins down quite a bit once Part B is added, and the resultant mix was still very pourable. Far from the reaction being slowed down by the plaster I found that the cup started to get warm very quickly, and then the liquid started to expand. Once it had set touch-hard it had practically doubled its volume, as shown by the initial mark I’d made on the cup. The mass was solid, hard and ‘dry’ within 30mins .. there was no under-curing, failure to mix or greasiness on the surface .. all the indications of a good cure!

comparison of volume of 30g unfilled resin with 30g plus plaster filler

What was completely unexpected was the change in tone .. from the normal clean, pale ivory to something slightly darker, dirtier as shown here .. and I can’t really explain that yet! The test piece detached cleanly from the cup and the surface was smooth as shown below. The only indication of foaming was minute but noticeable pocking of the surface towards the top, none at the bottom.

I measured the volume increase compared to the control pour, both before and after foaming. The control pour measured 30ml in volume once solid, roughly consistent with the SG (‘specific gravity’ or weight per ml) of the combined resin parts given by the manufacturer as 1.1g. The volume of the same amount of resin with 30g of Crystacal R added .. before expansion .. was just 40ml. This is also consistent with the way plaster behaves in water, absorbing much of the liquid volume. The volume of the expanded mass once set touch-hard was 70ml.

effects of foaming visible on cast surface

I expected a roughly similar result when I repeated the test using the same proportions with pottery plaster in place of Crystacal R  .. but the result was more dramatic! Pottery plaster is a coarser, softer-setting ‘beta’ plaster, called ‘pottery’ plaster because it’s designed for making the absorbent plaster moulds ideal for slip casting. In the first place whereas the 30g Crystacal had combined with the 15g Part A resin eventually as a smooth liquid, the same amount of pottery plaster became a thixotropic paste rather like car body filler. Addition of Part B thinned it considerably but it was still a significantly thicker liquid than that obtained using the Crystacal.

expansion of polyurethane resin when filled with 'pottery' plaster

But more importantly, foaming was more ‘aggressive’ producing larger bubbles and until it set hard the mixture expanded to almost three times its original volume. As before though the mass became solid and hard within 30mins with no tackiness or other evidence of failing to cure.

larger-scale foaming on surface using 'pottery' plaster

However, as shown below there was more noticeable damage to the cast surface in the topmost area because the bubbles here had become much larger. As with the Crystacal the volume of 30g resin combined with 30g pottery plaster prior to reaction was 40ml, but this expanded to 115ml before setting firm.

larger-scale foaming visible on cast surface

I made a sectional cut through the upper parts of both test pieces and sanded the surface .. the fine casting plaster to the left and the pottery plaster to the right below.

cut sections showing foam structure

I can only account for some of this marked difference in behaviour. The fact that the pottery plaster appeared to thicken the mix more is predictable .. it is because of the shape of the particles. Commercial fillers such as Fillite are composed of minute microspheres which roll over each other meaning that quite a lot can be added to a liquid without affecting its flow too much. The particles of pottery plaster must be jagged, causing them to clump together whereas those of the Crystacal must be finer and smoother. As for the stronger foaming reaction and increased expansion .. the pottery plaster was older than the Crystacal and may have acquired more moisture; it may also contain an additive; or it could have something to do with the particle size. I’m not entirely sure!

I imagined though that whereas plaster would never be a sensible option for flawless casting, these results could have some uses. At the moment I’m making cast versions of pieces of driftwood to use as components in a sculptural project. So far I’ve been hollow-casting these in polyurethane resin, but using Fillite as a thickener. I’ve described this casting process in my article Making hollow casts in open or closed moulds in the ‘Methods’ section under ‘Mouldmaking and casting’. One difficulty with this technique is getting a thick enough build-up, especially on vertical surfaces, when using polyurethane resin because there is no way of making it truly thixotropic. I tried the pottery plaster/resin mix for coating these moulds below, with a little black pigment added. I found that because of the swelling it was much easier and quicker to build up a thick shell, even on the vertical parts.

making a hollow cast in polyurethane resin

I also found, as I’d observed from the cup tests, that since the foaming is largely directed upwards there was no damage or loss of detail on the cast surfaces. The intricate patterns of weathered wood have reproduced perfectly here!

hollow casts using filled polyurethane resin



Recommended websites for visual research

You’ll find this list now under Visual research in the Methods section, and I’ve illustrated it with examples taken from some of the websites listed. I’ve compiled it with scenic designers in mind .. set designers for theatre, film or television .. but I’ve included a section on ‘Costume and fashion’ and the list should also be of relevance to prop-makers. Apropos ‘subject divisions’, I think I still need to work on these .. I’ve divided it according to instinct and feeling, but it may need a bit more logic. Like many things on this site, it is a work-in-progress, meaning that it is meant to develop over time even if this is hardly perceptible.

The so-called 'Hobbit House' built by an eccentric artist in the Cotswolds

Above from .. the so-called ‘Hobbit House’ in the Cotswolds Below from .. Eric Eakin’s collection of bedpans.

Eric Eakin's bedpan collection

I will always be on the lookout for interesting additions to this list, so if you’d like to recommend any yourself don’t hesitate to get in touch. I’ve given preference to websites with high visual content obviously, but the quality of supporting information has been almost as important. The Internet is a vast and far-reaching resource for all of us .. the task of making it more ‘responsible’ is one we all share!


Why not just Google?

A while ago I thought it might be useful to put together a list of websites most valuable for visual research, either those I’ve used and favorited in the past or some recommended by others, and I posted in Facebook groups such as the Society of British Theatre Designers (SBTD) asking for suggestions. Many thanks for the comments I received! .. I’m still working on the actual list and I will put it in a new folder Visual research in the Methods section very shortly.

For the time being I wanted first to provide a sketchy illustration as to why one shouldn’t confine one’s visual research to Google .. at least, not to the extent I’m accustomed to seeing from my undergraduate teaching. Don’t get me wrong! .. I don’t believe that Google Images can be .. or should be .. ignored! It all depends on how one uses the tool. For example, it is often my first port of call if I first want to define exactly what I’m looking for or to locate sites which are likely to give me better images and more information.

As an illustration, if I’ve really no idea what a ‘duchesse brisee’ is I can type it in and Google will very likely correct me if I’ve got the spelling wrong. That’s a great help in itself! Most of the images then displayed will give me a clear and immediate indication of what it is but also give me a wide choice of period interpretations. It may help at this point to change the search size from ‘Any’ to ‘Large’ because this often keeps the more informed sites and cuts down on the Pinterests and Flickrs. Now Google can be .. and should be .. left behind to refine one’s choice; checking the period and country of origin, and generally acquiring the kind of supporting information that sensible designers need to have! Here for example is the one I might have chosen  ..

Louis XV period duchesse brisee

The website it’s from.. ..tells me that it’s Louis XV period or mid 18th century, carved in walnut and even that it’s attributed to the maker Pierre Nogaret. A quick Google of ‘Pierre Nogaret’ shows me many other pieces of furniture of the same feel and period. Unusually doesn’t provide measurements in this particular case, but many other antiques or restoration sites do for similar pieces. Here Google repeatedly offers an invaluable ‘means’ ..but not the ‘end’.

Or to take another example, if I want specific information on what a tenement dwelling in New York looked like in the 1890s I might also try Google first just for fun. In this case, because typing ‘1890 New York tenement’ could bring up too many irrelevant results it may be better to choose the ‘Advanced’ search option and type one’s search words in the ‘all words’ box. When I did this I was presented with this image from someone’s Flickr page, which looks pretty authentic and is entitled ‘New York tenement 1890’, but as often with Flickr or Pinterest there’s no other information and no indication of source so that I can verify that it’s authentic! For the serious designer this is a rather ‘blind alley’ and therefore a waste of time.

photo from Jacob Riis 'How the Other Half Lives' first published 1890

What one needs to do is either scroll down to see whether the image appears again from a more ‘official’ source in which case there is likely to be more information about it or, failing that, click on the thumbnail and use the ‘Search by image’ option in the window that appears to find other sources. Luckily this image appears on a number of reliable sites such as the Smithsonian, or Wikipedia and further clicking on any of these will reveal the fact that the photo comes from a priceless social document How the Other Half Lives published in 1890 by the American journalist Jacob A Riis (although initially the photos were reproduced either as line drawings or halftone and wouldn’t have had the impact they have today).

photo from Jacob Riis 'How the Other Half Lives' published 1890

The point I am making is that someone intent on the ‘fast-food’ method might not even discover that, or the wealth of other relevant photos from Jacob A Riis that might not fall within the search terms used. Sure .. Google, Flickr or Pinterest will deliver instant results which can be effortlessly collected. It’s so easy to ‘click and save’ that even the thought of having to halt one’s happy gathering in order to check and document weighs curiously heavy!

The way we used to work as theatre designers before the establishment of the Internet could be admittedly arduous at times .. we had to go to libraries! We had to first search through catalogues arranged by subject or browse the shelves to locate books that might be helpful. If we found images we wanted to ‘keep’ we would have to take them down to the photocopier .. often just black&white, if there even was one and if it was working! But that meant that we had to become very focused and selective in our responses to images and the choice of them! We had to make conscious notes of where we found things, rather than trusting a computer to save that info ..which meant we were accustomed to reading and digesting it first! The books we found the images in would usually tell us all we needed to know about them and suggest yet other sources in their bibliographies. More often than not, writers were both circumspect and thorough when it came to the printed word! All this could be time-consuming, but on the other hand we could assess the quality and relevance of a book in mere seconds, just by flicking through it .. try doing that with a website!

Jacob A Riss understood not only the value but the necessity of ‘hard graft’ .. as a humanitarian, a pioneering journalist and a documentary photographer he was essentially optimistic, driven and persistent! Any serious designer, especially for theatre/film/television, has to operate in much the same way as an investigative journalist like Riss .. leaving few stones unturned. The problem with the Internet is that there are far too many pebbles!

New Blades 2015

For another year running I was so thankful that I didn’t miss the single, ever-so-brief chance last Thursday 11th to see New Blades 2015 the annual model makers recruitment fair at the Holborn Studios in London. In actual fact this was amazingly the 23rd year running and this unique event is organised each year by 4D modelshop on behalf of the colleges, featuring the work of graduating students from model making or special effects courses throughout the UK ( go to the end for more info on the colleges and courses ).

I have rather ambivalent feelings towards the terms ‘model’ and even more so ‘model maker’. Personally I cringe inwardly when I’m referred to as a ‘model maker’ because I feel it instantly reduces me to a fraction of what I am or what I’m involved with .. and judging by the quality, depth and variety of much of the work on show at New Blades 2015 I think the graduates deserve to feel the same! But however much I might dislike the term because of how little it’s understood ..seeing the show makes me very proud to be considered a ‘model maker’ too!

I’ve tried to include photos here of the work that most impressed or interested me this year, but I’ve also included work from past years which I felt was indicative of New Blades as a whole. Unfortunately, since there are no catalogues or online records of the exhibits, I was limited in the choice of photos and only had the names of the exhibitors, but no work titles or other info..

Thomas Hughes, New Blades 2015

From this year’s show above work from Thomas Hughes and below from Alex Brooker

Alex Brooker, New Blades 2015

This is not really a ‘review’ of New Blades 2015, just some thoughts on what I saw and on the regular institution the show has become over the years, because I feel that something so special deserves wider attention. The students, their tutors, the colleges and the organisers could do with more feedback, in spite of the show being very well attended during the brief time it was on.

But wider publicity is more for the benefit of the public than the contributors. There is work here that would not be seen anywhere else .. at least not so close and personal. Each year the chance comes along to focus on the type of painstaking, practical work that contributes so much to our media experiences .. if actors are venerated, almost worshipped by some, for igniting our imaginations why not the objects created too?

Imogen Nagle, New Blades 2015. Tiger mask

Also from this year above from Imogen Nagle and below from David Patterson

David Patterson, New Blades 2015

This is a great deal more than a ‘model making’ show .. it is a roller-coaster ride through some of the finest, most entertaining, most inspiring examples of physical making! It is a show about passion, dedication .. and breathtaking skill! At times it’s very difficult to connect the works on view with the young, hopeful people standing next to them during the ‘Industry Night’. The quality of many of the objects suggests more years of experience .. many years of practise and an ‘old school’ attention to detail. What comes across from the show as a whole is that the passion and dedication are so obviously shared by everyone involved with it .. the organisers, the tutors, the industry professionals and the commercial sponsors.

How can this rather diminutive word ‘model’ begin to do justice to the serious quality and vast range of the work produced. In this context the word has to embrace prosthetics, costumes, ‘cosplay’ artifacts, theatre and film props, puppets, animation sets, automatons, animatronics, character portraiture, creature design, architectural models, product design, museum and exhibition displays, sculpture, fine engineering and bespoke furniture.

Stephanie Bolduc, New Blades 2015. Still from 'Manoman'

Above still from Stephanie Bolduc’s short film ‘Manoman’ and below work from Alexandra Poulson, both from this year’s show

Alexandra Poulson, New Blades 2015

Below work from Matthew Cooper 2014

Matthew Cooper, New Blades 2014

Joanne Harvey, New Blades 2014

Above costume work from Joanne Harvey 2014 and below Ollie Knights from the same year

Ollie Knights, New Blades 2014

Perhaps the general tag of ‘model’ is not so bad in some respects though .. it is like a little signpost pointing to the ‘hands-on’, the physical and practical. Unlike some Degree shows objects are always centre-stage here, and partly because of that each show is packed with immediate focuses of interest .. but never feels cluttered!

'please touch' New Blades 2013

The roller-coaster experience may be a little unkind to the architectural or product models exhibited .. I always feel a bit sorry for them! They need a quiet zone of contemplation. They are often beautifully made, faultless, and they certainly have their devotees amongst the audience .. I would say the same for the custom vehicles .. but they’re not so likely to get the ‘popular wow’ vote.

Henry Welch, New Blades 2015

Above Henry Welch from this year and below Petre Craciun from 2014

Petre Craciun, New Blades 2014

Below Ollie Knights 2014

Ollie Knights, New Blades 2014

There are however prizes awarded in a number of categories, including ‘Best Architectural Model’ ( awarded in 2014 to Petre Craciun, above ). We all like being acknowledged ourselves and it’s difficult not to be moved when we witness the acknowledgement of someone we believe deserves it, but I feel that the prize-givings are more just a part of the entertainment. With so much variety, so much choice .. it can never be completely ‘fair’ .. I’d estimate a good 25% of the achievements in New Blades deserve the same accolade each year!

Speaking of choice .. in terms of subjects and treatments I’m guessing that students don’t have a completely free choice as to where or how to focus their efforts. If they want to get work these choices are conditioned by the market and tutors would be failing the students if they didn’t equip them to satisfy it and guide them towards it. So bearing this mind there’s always a surprising measure of individuality and innovation .. I’m just not sure that I want to see another Incredible Hulk, Elephant Man or Dobby the House Elf. I feel that no matter what skill or sensitivity is shown it’s getting hard to remain inspired by them.

Skilled makers don’t necessarily have to be innovators, or have great or original ideas, but in New Blades 2015 as in previous years there was no shortage of ‘special’!

Thomas Hughes, New Blades 2015

Above another piece from Thomas Hughes this year and below from ‘S.B’ 2013

S.B, New Blades 2013

Below another piece this year from Imogen Nagle, ‘Herman the merman’

Imogen Nagle, New Blades 2015 'Herman the merman'

The show also offers the unique opportunity to learn something about the making processes. As one comes to expect from design/practical Degree shows there are many portfolios to browse through which include detailed records of the designing and making process. What distinguishes New Blades in this respect compared to other Degree shows I visit is that many of the students really do take this aspect of ‘record keeping’ seriously .. as an integral part of their work. Often the work-in-progress photos are not merely snapshots, but carefully balanced and crafted works in themselves! I think this reflects the increasing importance of Internet presence, but also perhaps the increasing popularity of ‘making ofs’ as part of the entertainment.

Imogen Nagle, New Blades 2015 'Herman the merman' sculpt

Above ‘Herman’ sculpt from Imogen Nagle and below the ‘space bulldog’ maquette in progress from Thomas Hughes

Thomas Hughes, New Blades 2015. Space bulldog maquette in progress

But I feel one of the most important inspirations from this exhibition within the current climate is that much of the best work emphasizes the value of ‘fusion’ .. the discerning use of digital help and the perfect fusion of traditional hand-work and machine-enabled. Faced nowadays with a greatly expanded toolbox, ‘model-makers’ have to become expert ‘choosers’.

Rujie Li, New Blades 2015

Also from this year above Rujie Li and below Jack White

Jack White, New Blades 2015

It may be wrong to take perfection or absolute realism as benchmarks for judging the physical work .. one has to accept that if the work is destined for the screen it could undergo further transformation. Considering the fusion of practical and digital methods currently prevailing it may not make economic sense for a physical object to contain every nuance .. it may be quicker, easier and cheaper to add refinements digitally. On the other hand I’m guessing that the students are nevertheless encouraged to put as much as possible into the physical rendition. I was very glad that the exhibition gave the physical objects centre-stage, and that there seemed to be very few monitors or laptops around!

This year’s students haven’t exactly been ‘quick off the mark’ in getting their portfolios online, part of the reason why I’ve used examples from past years as much as from the present to illustrate the range and standards achieved. If you like what you see, you can see more work from this year’s or previous exhibitions at

.. and go to the 4D modelshop website from May onwards next year to see when the next New Blades will take place.

There’s only one single and major fault with this show .. that it’s not on for longer, at least long enough for more of the public at large to appreciate what it offers! It’s always brief, but this year was extremely so. It’s a big ask in London though! It must cost a lot to stage it even for a couple of days and all money made goes towards the costs.

University of Hertfordshire, Character and creative effects

Above work from the University of Hertfordshire website

The colleges and courses

If you’re not a film/tv industry insider you may struggle to understand what is meant by ‘visual effects’ as opposed to ‘special effects’ .. and it’s even a little more complicated when it comes to courses! Course options are changing in accordance with constantly evolving territories. For example University of Hertfordshire offers three ‘Model Design’ BA choices .. ‘Character and Creative Effects’, ‘Model Effects’ and ‘Special Effects’. Arts University Bournemouth offers one comprehensive BA in ‘Modelmaking’. University of Bolton runs a BDes in ‘Special Effects for Film & TV’. University for the Creative Arts entitles their BA ‘Creative Arts for Theatre and Film’ and City of Glasgow College offers an HND in ‘3D Design: Model Making for the Creative Industries’.